عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Crown rot disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the major diseases of canola worldwide. Biological control is a control method in agriculture for living organisms, especially fungi and bacteria, and is used in order to control plant damages caused by harmful factors.
Materials and Methods
In this research, we evaluated the effect of seventy one isolates of Trichoderma spp. against S. sclerotiorum using various in vitro methods including dual culture and slide culture methods. Based on the obtained results of in vitro studies, six Trichoderma isolates and Tebuconazole fungicide were selected in order to study their potentials for controlling the crown rot disease in greenhouse. For this purpose, rapeseed petals were inoculated with S. sclerotiorum and inoculation of suspensions of Trichoderma isolates was done after inoculation of pathogen and also before and after its inoculation and then the severity of the disease was determined in the studied treatments.
Based on obtained results, in dual culture, ARCTr281 (T. harzianum) was the most effective isolate for inhibition of mycelial growth. In hyperparasitism test, all isolates of T. harzianum hade successful performance in controlling the pathogenand coiling of Trichoderma was observed around the hyphae of S. sclerotiorum. Lowest disease incidence and severity of disease was observed in the negative control (without Sclerotinia and Trichoderma). Inoculated fungi in two stages, effectively were able to reduce the incidence and severity of disease in leaves and stems that ARCTr281 (T. harzianum) was the most effective fungus under greenhouse conditions. Also, the use of Trichoderma isolates in two stages in presence of pathogen caused an increase in height, fresh and dry weight of the shoot and root under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of variance and comparing the average characters by Least Significant Difference (LSD), Duncan and nonparametric method showed significant difference between used fungi in dual culture and greenhouse studies.
According to the results of biocontrol studies under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, ARCTr281 and ARCTr272 fungal isolates belonging to T. harzianum were the most effective antagonists for control of canola's crown rot disease. The results of this study indicated that different isolates of Trichoderma can be considered as potential antagonists for the management of canola's crown rot disease.
Abassi, S., Safaie, N., Shamsbakhsh, M., and Shahbazi, S. 2014. Evaluation of antagonistic properties of Trichoderma harzianum mutants against some plant pathogenic fungi in vitro. Journal of Plant Protection, 37(4): 91-102.
Abdollahzadeh, J., Mohammadi Golpteh, A. and Rouhani, H. 2006. Investigation of biocontrol of crown and root rot of sunflower (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) by Trichoderma species in laboratory condition. Journal of Agricultural Science, 12 (1): 43-55. (in Farsi with English abstract).
Abdullah, M, T., Ali, N, Y., and Suleman, P. 2008. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum(Lib.) de Bary with Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Crop Protection, 27(2): 1354-1359.
Aghajani, M. A., Safaei, N., and Alizadeh, A. 2008. Temporal study of Sclerotinia stem rot of canola in Golestan province. Proceeding of the 18th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Hamedan, Iran. P. 51.
Alavi Rad, S. 2016. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of tobacco collar rot by antagonistic fungi in Guilan province. M.Sc. Thesis, Daylaman University of Lahijan. Iran.
Almomani, F., Alhawatema, M., and Hameed, K. 2013. Detection, identification and morphological characteristic of Macrophomina phaseolina: the charcoal rot disease pathogens isolated from infected plants in Northern Jordan. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection,46(9): 1005-1014.
Barari, H., and Dalili, A. 2016. Antagonistic effects of Trichoderma spp. in the control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and in comparison with chemical fungicides. Journal of Plant Diseases, 4(2): 13-26. (in Farsi with English summary).
Bissett, J. 1984. A revision of the genus Trichoderma. I. Section Longibrachiatum sec. nov. Canadian Journal of Botany, 62(5): 924-931.
Bradley, C. A., Endres, G., Hanson, B., Henson, B., McKay, K., Halvorson, M., Porter, P., and LeGare, D. 2003. Evaluations of fungicides for control of Sclerotinia stem rot of canola in North Dakota and Minnesota. NDSU Extension Service.
Cardoso, J. E., Santos, A. A., Rossetti, A. G., and Vidal, J. C. 2004. Relationship between incidence and severity of cashew guminosis in semiarid north-eastern Brazil. Plant Pathology, 53: 363-367.
da Silva Botelho, L., Antonio Zancan, W. L., da Cruz Machado, J., and Noly Barrocas, E. 2013. Performance of common bean seeds infected by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Journal of Seed Science, 35(2):153-160.
Dennis, C., and Webster, J. 1971. Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma III, hyphal interaction. Transactions of the British Mycological Society Journal, 57(3): 363-369.
Elad, Y., Chet, I., and Katan, J. 1980. Trichoderma harzianum: A biocontrol agent effective against Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani. Phytopathology, 70(2): 119-121.
Fontenelle, A. D. B., Guzzo, S. D., Lucon, C. M. M., and Harakava, R. 2011. Growth promotion and induction of resistance in tomato plant against Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Alternaria solani by Trichoderma spp. Crop Protection, 30(11): 1492-1500.
Gams, W., and Bissett, J. 1998. Morphology and identification of Trichoderma. In: Kubicek, C. P., Harman, G. E., (eds), Trichoderma and Gliocladium. Volume 1: Basic Biology, Taxonomy and Genetics.Taylor and Francis Ltd., London. pp. 3-34.
Garcia, R. A., and Juliatti, F. C. 2012. Evaluation of the resistance of soybean to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in different phenological stages and periods of exposure to the inoculum. Tropical Plant Pathology, 37(3): 196-203.
Guareschi, R. F., Perin, A., Macagnan, D., Tramontini, A., and Gazolla, P. R. 2012. Employment of Trichoderma spp. in the control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and in the promotion of vegetative growth in the sunflower and soybean crops. Global Science and Technology, 5: 1-8.
Haddad, P. E., Leite, L. G., Mantovanello Lucon, C. M., and Harakava, R. 2017. Selection of Trichoderma spp. strains for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 52(12): 1140-1148.
Huang, H. C., and Erickson, R. S. 2007. Biological control of Sclerotinia stem rot of canola using Ulocladium atrum. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 16: 55-59.
Huang, H. C., Bremer, E., Hynes, R. K., and Erickson, R. S., 2000. Foliar application of fungal biocontrol agents for the control of white mold of dry bean caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Biological Control, 18: 270 – 276.
Jones, D., Gordon, A. H., and Bacon, J. S. D. 1974. Cooperative from parasitic, Fungi in the degradation of cell wall glucans of. Biochemical Journal, 140: 47-55.
Kohn, L. M. 1979. Delimitation of economically important plant pathogenic Sclerotinia species. Phytopathology, 69: 881-886.
Kucuk, C., and Kivanc, M. 2004. In vitro antifungal activity of strains of Trichoderma harzianum.Turkish Journal of Biology, 28: 111-115.
Li, G. Q., Huang, H. C., and Acharya, S. N. 2003. Antagonism and biocontrol potential of Ulocladium atrum on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Biological Control, 28(1): 11-18.
Li, G. Q., Huang, H. C., Miao, H. J., Erickson, R. S., Jiang, D. H., and Xiao, Y. N. 2006. Biological control of Sclerotinia diseases of rapeseed by aerial applications of the mycoparasite, Coniothyrium minitans. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 114(4): 345-355.
Mahdi Alamdarloo, R., and Gharagozloo, K. 2003. Stem white rot of canola. Proceeding of the 1th Congress on Research and Development of Canola, Gorgan, Iran. P. 34.
Matroudi, S., Zamani, M. R., and Motallebi, M. 2009. Antagonistic effects of three species of Trichoderma sp. on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of canola stem rot. Egyptian Journal of Biology, 11: 37-44.
Merat, A., Moghaddam, S. A. M., and Rohani, H. 2005. Study on antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp. from Guilan province (Iran) on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, causal agent of bud and twig die-back of mulberry trees. Proceeding of the 14th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Isfahan, Iran. P. 402.
Mohammadzadeh, J. 2015. Study of the effect of solvent and enzymatic extraction methods on the quality of rapeseed oil and protein. Iranian Journal of Oilseed Plants, 4(1): 23-32. (in Farsi with English abstract).
Mordue, J. E. M., and Holliday, P. 1976. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria, CMI, Kew, Surrey, UK.
Ojaghian, S. M. R., Zafari, D., and Khodakaramian, G. 2009. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of potato white mold by different Trichoderma spp. and Coniothyrium minitans. Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Science, 2(1): 107-119. (in Farsi with English summary).
Ousley, M. A., Lynch, J. M., and Whipps, J. M. 1993. Effect of Trichoderma on plant growth: a balance between inhibition and growth promotion. Microbial Ecology, 26(3): 277-285.
Pedro, E. A., de S Harakava, R., Lucon, C. M. M., and Guzzo, S. D. 2012. Promotion of bean growth and control of anthracnose by Trichoderma spp. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 47(11): 1589-1595.
Phillips, A. J. L. 1990. Fungi associated with sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in South Africa and their effects on the pathogen. Review of Plant Pathology, 69(4): 17-70.
Radwan, M. B., Fadel, A. M., and Mohammad, I. A. M. 2006. Biological control of Sclerotium rolfsii by using indigenous Trichoderma spp. isolates from Palestine. Hebron University Research Journal,2(2): 27- 47.
Saharan, G. S., and Mehta, N. 2008. Sclerotinia disease of crop plants: Biology, ecology and disease management. Springer Netherlands.
Samuels, G. J., Chaverri, P., Farr, D. F., and McCray, E. B. 2010. Trichoderma, Online, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. http://nt.ars-grin.gov/taxadescriptions/keys/TrichodermaIndex.cfm.
Steadman, J. R. 1979. Control of plant diseases caused by Sclerotinia species. Phytopathology, 69: 904-907.
Trutmann, P., and Keane, P. J. 1990. Trichoderma koningii as a biocontrol agent for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in southern Australia. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22(1): 43-50.
Tu, J. C. 1980. Gliocladium virens, a destructive mycoparasites of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.Phytopathology, 70(7): 670-674.