تاثیر اقلیم و فعالیت‌های کشاورزی اکوسیستم روی تنوع زیستی سن‌های خانواده Anthocoridae (Hemiptera) در استان هرمزگان (ایران)

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

2 دانشیار دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

3 استاد دانشگاه دالهوزی

10.22055/ppr.2019.14745

چکیده

سن ­های خانواده Anthocoridae از شکارگران مهم بسیاری از آفات کشاورزی در جهان می­ باشند. شرایط اقلیمی و فعالیت­ های کشاورزی ممکن است با تاثیر روی تنوع زیستی دشمنان طبیعی، جمعیت آفات را تغییر دهند. در این مطالعه، فون و تنوع زیستی سن­ های خانواده Anthocoridae در دو اقلیم گرم و نیمه خشک (میناب) و گرم و مرطوب (تازیان) استان هرمزگان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و تاثیر فعالیت­ های کشاورزی روی تنوع زیستی آن‏ها تعیین شد. نمونه­ برداری از گیاهان مختلف یک ساله و چندساله از اکوسیستم ­های مختلف تحت کشت و بکر انجام گرفت. در این بررسی، پنج گونه از جنس Orius شامل Orius (Dimorphella)albidipennis (Reuter1884)، O.(Dimorphella) maxidentex (Ghauri, 1972)،O. minutus (Linnaeus‚ 1758)، O. laevigatus (Fiber‚ 1860) و O.niger (Wolff, 1811) و سه گونه O. maxidentex و O. minutus به ترتیب از روی گیاهان مختلف در اقلیم تازیان و میناب، جمع­ آوری شد. گونه غالب در اقلیم‌های گرم و مرطوب و  گرم و نیمه‏ خشک به ترتیب O. maxidentex و O. albidipennis بود. مقدار شاخص ­های مختلف تنوع زیستی و یکنواختی در اقلیم گرم و مرطوب به صورت معنی­ داری از اقلیم گرم و نیمه خشک بیش‏تر بود. بیشترین تنوع زیستی سن ‏ها در فصل بهار و کمترین آن در فصل پاییز مشاهده شد. مقدار شاخص یکنواختی جامعه سن ‏ها در فصل‏ های زمستان و بهار به صورت معنی­ داری بیشتر از تابستان و پاییز بود. با این حال، تنوع زیستی سن‏ های این خانواده در اکوسیستم ‏های تحت کشت و بکر اختلاف معنی‏ داری با همدیگر در درون هر اقلیم، نداشتند. از نتایج این تحقیق می ­توان برای توسعه برنامه کنترل بیولوژیک توسط این سن­ ها در استان هرمزگان استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of climate and ecosystem manipulation on biodiversity of Anthocoridae in Hormozgan province (Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Sadegh Nejad 1
  • A. Rajabpour 2
  • C. Cultler 3
1 M. Sc. student, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan
2 Associate professor, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan
3 Professor, Dalhousie University
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives
The predatory bugs, Anthocoridae, are important predators of many agricultural pests in the world. Climate and agricultural manipulations may change pest populations by affecting biodiversity of biocontrol agents. In this study, fauna and biodiversity of the Anthocoridae family were investigated in two climates of Hormozgan province: Tazian and Minab. The effect of agricultural manipulations on the anthocorid biodiversity was also determined.
Materials and methods
Sampling was carried out on various annual and perennial plants in both non-manipulated and manipulated (cropping and horticultural systems) ecosystems. Data were analyzed by SDR software according to various diversity and evenness indices.
Results
Five species from genus Orius, Orius (Dimorphella) albidipennis (Reuter1884), O.(Dimorphella) maxidentex (Ghauri, 1972), O. minutus (Linnaeus‚ 1758), O. laevigatus (Fiber‚ 1860) and O.niger (Wolff, 1811), and three species, O. albidipennis, O. maxidentex and O. minutus, were collected from various host plants of Tazian and Minab climates, respectively. Biodiversity and species evenness index values in Tazian were significantly higher than Minab. The highest and lowest biodiversity index values were observed in spring and fall, respectively. The evenness index values were significantly higher in winter and spring than summer and fall. However, no significant difference between biodiversity of manipulated and non-manipulated ecosystems was found in each climate.
Discussion
Dominant species were different according to climate condition. Moreover, our findings indicated that climate and season significantly affect biodiversity of anthocoridbugs.  Agricultural manipulation had no significant effect on the biodiversity of anthocorid bugs. The results can be used in biological control program of various pests by these predators in Hormozgan province. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Orius bugs
  • agricultural ecosystem
  • species identification
  • species richness
  • species evenness

Barnes, B.V., Zak D.R., Denton, S.R. and Spurr, S.H. 1998. Forest Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.

Bridgham, S. D. 1988. Chronic effects of 2,29’-dichlorobiphenyl on reproduction, mortality, growth and respiration of Daphia pulicaria. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 17: 731–740.

Burgio, G., Ferrari, R., Boriani, L., Pozzati, M., and van Lenteren J. 2006. The role of ecological infrastructures on Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) and other predators in weedy field margins within northern Italy agroecosystems. Bulletin of Insectology, 59(1): 59-67.

Camargo, J. A.1993. Must dominance increase with the number of subordinate species in competitive interaction. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 161: 537-542.

Cornelissen, T. 2011. Climate change and its effects on terrestrial insects and herbivory patterns. Neotropical Entomology, 40(2): 155-163.‏

Darvish Mojeni, T. 2013. Study of population abundance and dynamic of dominant species Orius spp. in the fields of cotton in Golestan province. Iranian Journal of Cotton Research, 1(1): 29-41 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Davari, H., Seraj A.A., and Rajabpour, A. 2015. Biodiversity of genus Orius (Hemiptera:  Anthocoridae) in various climate regions and seasons of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province and evaluation of agro-ecosystem effects on their biodiversity. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 35(3): 1-14 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Erfanfar, D., and Ostovan, H. 2005. Speicies diversity of flower bugs (Family: Anthocoridae( in Shiraz region. Agricultural Sciences, 11(2): 81-95. (In Farsi with English abstract).

Erfanfar, D., Ostovan, H., and Sarafrazai, A.M. 2011. The first report of Orius maxidentex (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) from Iran. Plant Protection Journal, 2(4): 339-344 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Fathi, A.A. 2017. Effect of intercropping systems of green bean and clover on biodiversity of natural enemies of Thrips tabaci Lindeman. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 40(3), 13-25 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Fathi, A.A., Nouri Ghanbalani, G. Farshbaf Pour Abad, R., Hadad Irani Nejad, H., and Valizadeh, M. 2006. Study on identification and density of subfamily Anthocorinae (Heteroptera) in potato, alfalfa and wheat fields of three regions in east-Azarbaijan province. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 37(3): 497-508 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Foottit, R. G., Adler, P. H. 2009. Insect biodiversity: science and society. Wiley-Blackwell publishing, Oxford, UK.

Gesse, F., Monleon-Getino, T., and Goula, M. 2014. Biodiversity analysis of true bug assemblages (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) in four habitats in the Garraf Natural Park (Barcelona, Spain). Journal of Insect Science, 14 (1): 1-11.

Ghahari, H. Carpintero, D. L., and Ostovan. H. 2009a. An annotated catalogue of the Iranian Anthocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha). Acta Entomology Musei Nationalis Pragae, 49 (1): 43-58.

Ghahari, H., Ostovan, H., and Tabari, M. 2009b. Species diversity and population fluctuation of Heteroptera predators in rice fields of Mazandaran province, Northern Iran. Plant Protection Journal, 1(1): 17-41 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Ghauri, M. S. K. 1972. The identity of Orius tantillus (Motschulsky) and notes on other oriental Anthocoridae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera). Journal of Natural History, 6: 409–421.

Hassanzadeh Aval, A. M., and Modares Aval, A. M. 2010. Fauna and biodiversity of Anthocoridae in Mashhad region.‏ Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 33(1): 47-54 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Hassanzadeh, H., Shishehbor, P., Esfandiari, M., and Rajabpour, A. 2013. Collection of Orius species (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in some counties of Yazd province, Iran. Munis Entomology and Zoology, 8(1): 507-508.‏

Krebs, C. J. 1989. Ecological methodology. Harper Collins Publisher, New York. P. 654.

Lattin, J. D. 1999. Bionomics of the Anthocoridae. Annual Review of Entomology, 44(1): 207-231.‏

Magurran, A. E. 2004. Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell  Publishing. Oxford UK. P. 256.

Ostovan, H. 1998. Some species of the flower bug genus Orius Wolff (Hetroptera: Anthocoridae) from Iran. Journal of the Agricultural Sciences, 4: 5-10. (In Farsi with English abstract).

Ostovan, H., and Niakan, J. 2000. Some bugs of the subfamily Anthocorinae (Hetroptera: Anthocoridae ) collecterd in Fars province, Iran. Journal of the Agricultural Sciences, 5: 5-14 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Peet, R. K. 1974. The measurement of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 5(1): 285-307.

Pericart, J. 1972. Hémiptères Anthocoridae, Cimicidae, Microphysidae de l’Ouest-Paléarctique. Faune de l’Europe et du bassin Méditerranéen. Vol. 7. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles, Paris, France.

Price, P. W. 1997. Insect ecology. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester, UK.‏

Rajabpour, A. 2011. Faunestic study of bugs belong to subfamily Anthocorinae in Khuzestan province and efficiacy evaluation of Orius laevigatus Fieber to economical damage control of Thrips tabaci Lindeman. Ph.D. thesis of entomology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. P. 152 (In Farsi with English abstract).

Rajabpour, A., Seraj, A. A., Allahyari, H., and Shishehbor, P. 2011. Evaluation of Orius laevigatus Fiber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) for biological control of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on greenhouse cucumber in South of Iran. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(5): 457-467.‏

Sepahvand, Z. 2016. The survey and comparison of biodiversity of Anthocoridae family in Khuzestan and Lorestan province. M.Sc. Thesis of Entomology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. P. 155.

Simpson, E. H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163(4148): 688.

Southwood, T.R.E. and Henderson, P.A. 2000. Ecological methods. Chapman and Hall New York.

Tommasini, M. G. 2004. Collection of Orius species in Italy. Bulletin of insectology, 57(2): 65-72.‏

Vafaei Shoushtari, R., Babolhavaeji, F., and Madadi, H. 2013. Faunestic study and biodiversity of Anthocoridae in Hamedan province of Iran. The second international conference on agriculture and natural resources. pp. 1010-1011.