تنوع گونه‎ای سوسک‌های خانواده Carabidae درچند بوم‌سامانه‌ مختلف در پاکدشت، جنوب شرق تهران

نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار، موسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

4 دانشیار دانشگاه تهران

5 فارغ‌التحصیل دکتری

10.22055/ppr.2019.14750

چکیده

تنوع گونه‎ای سوسک‌های خانواده Carabidae درجنوب شرق استان تهران در سال 1394 مورد مطالعه قرارگرفت. جمع آوری این حشرات با استفاده از تله گودالی از اکوسیستم‎های مختلف زراعی مانند یونجه و جو و فضای سبز انجام شد. تنوع گونه‎ای با استفاده از نرم افزار Species Diversity and Richness (SDR)  محاسبه شد. تنوع گونه‎ای آلفا، شاخص شانون واینر، شاخص سیمپسون، تنوع گونه‎ای بتا، سکنواختی گونه‎ای، شاخص پیلو جی، غنای گونه‎ای و شاخص شباهت محاسبه شد.در این تحقیق در مجموع 450 نمونه متعلق به 12 گونه جمع­آوری شد. گونه‎ها شامل Acinopus picipes (Olivier, 1795)، Amara ovate (Fabricius, 1792)، Brachinus ejaculans Fisher von Waldheim, 1828، Calathus fuscipes (Goeze, 1777)،Calathus melanocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758)، Cylindera germanica (Linnaeus, 1758)، Distichus planus (Bonelli, 1813)، Harpalus griseus (Panzer, 1796)، Harpalus rufipes (Degeer, 1774)،Poecilus wollastoni (Wollaston, 1854) ، Siagona europaea Dejean, 1826 و Zabrus tenebrioides (Goeze, 1777) می‎باشند.بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، گونهDistichus planus در مزرعه جو پاکدشت و قرچک دارای بیشترین فراوانی بود. فضای سبز دانشکده ابوریحان با 8 گونه و مزرعه یونجه پاکدشت با 5 گونه دارای بیشترین و مزارع جو پاکدشت و قرچک با 4 گونه دارای کمترین تعداد گونه بودند. همچنین مزرعه یونجه پاکدشت دارای بیشترین میزان یکنواختی و مزرعه جو پاکدشت دارای کم‏ترین یکنواختی بودند. بر اساس شاخص شباهت، از نظر تنوع گونه‎ای سوسک های زمینی فضای سبز دانشکده ابوریحان و مزرعه یونجه پاکدشت بیشترین شباهت را بهم نشان دادند (75 درصد) و مزرعه جو پاکدشت و قرچک با مزرعه یونجه پاکدشت کمترین شباهت را داشتند (33 درصد).

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The species diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae) of different ecosystems from south east of Tehran province, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Ghobadi 1
  • H. Adelimanesh 2
  • S. Farahani 3
  • J. Nozari 4
  • S. Azadbakhsh 5
1 M.Sc. of Entomology, Abureyhan Campus, University of Tehran
2 Assistant Professor, Abureyhan Campus, University of Tehran
3 Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Forest and Rangeland, Agriculture Research, Education and Extension Organization
4 Associated Professor, University of Tehran
5 Ph.D.
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives
Ground beetles as ‘‘generalist predators’’ are one of the most common and species-rich families of arthropods in agricultural ecosystems and their role as effective bioindicators is well known.
Materials and Methods
Ground beetles (Carabidae) of south east of Tehran province was studied during 2015. These beetles were collected by pitfall traps from different ecosystems such as alfalfa and barley farms as well as green lands. The species diversity was studied by Species Diversity and Richness software. Different tests in this study included:  Alpha Diversity index, Shannon-Wiener Index, Simpson Index, Beta (β) diversity, Species Evenness, Pielou J Index, Species Richness and Similarity index.
Results
In this study 450 specimens belonging to 12 species were collected. The species include  Acinopus picipes (Olivier, 1795), Amara ovate (Fabricius, 1792), Brachinus ejaculans Fisher von Waldheim, 1828, Calathus fuscipes (Goeze, 1777)،, Calathus melanocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), Cylindera germanica (Linnaeus, 1758), Distichus planus (Bonelli, 1813), Harpalus griseus (Panzer, 1796), Harpalus rufipes (Degeer, 1774), Poecilus wollastoni (Wollaston, 1854), Siagona europaea Dejean, 1826 and Zabrus tenebrioides (Goeze, 1777).Based on the results, Distichus planus had the most divergence in barley fields of Pakdasht and Gharchak. Green land of Abureyhan campus and alfalfa field of Pakdasht with 8 and 5 species, respectively, had the highest number of species. Both of barley fields of Pakdasht and Gharchak with 4 species had the lowest number of species. Moreover, the alfalfa field of Pakdasht and barley field of Pakdasht had the highest and lowest evenness, respectively. Based on the similarity index, green land of Abureyhan campus and alfalfa field of Pakdasht had the most similarity (%75) and barley of Pakdasht and Gharchak with alfalfa field of Pakdasht had the lowest similarity (%33).
Discussion
Carabid beetles are important biological control agents in agroecosystems and their study of biodiversity help to pest management program. The results of this study enhanced our knowledge regarding the diversity of Carabid species in central Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ground beetles
  • species diversity
  • Shannon-Wiener
  • evenness
  • Tehran

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