عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and objectives
Ground beetles as ‘‘generalist predators’’ are one of the most common and species-rich families of arthropods in agricultural ecosystems and their role as effective bioindicators is well known.
Materials and Methods
Ground beetles (Carabidae) of south east of Tehran province was studied during 2015. These beetles were collected by pitfall traps from different ecosystems such as alfalfa and barley farms as well as green lands. The species diversity was studied by Species Diversity and Richness software. Different tests in this study included: Alpha Diversity index, Shannon-Wiener Index, Simpson Index, Beta (β) diversity, Species Evenness, Pielou J Index, Species Richness and Similarity index.
In this study 450 specimens belonging to 12 species were collected. The species include Acinopus picipes (Olivier, 1795), Amara ovate (Fabricius, 1792), Brachinus ejaculans Fisher von Waldheim, 1828, Calathus fuscipes (Goeze, 1777)،, Calathus melanocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), Cylindera germanica (Linnaeus, 1758), Distichus planus (Bonelli, 1813), Harpalus griseus (Panzer, 1796), Harpalus rufipes (Degeer, 1774), Poecilus wollastoni (Wollaston, 1854), Siagona europaea Dejean, 1826 and Zabrus tenebrioides (Goeze, 1777).Based on the results, Distichus planus had the most divergence in barley fields of Pakdasht and Gharchak. Green land of Abureyhan campus and alfalfa field of Pakdasht with 8 and 5 species, respectively, had the highest number of species. Both of barley fields of Pakdasht and Gharchak with 4 species had the lowest number of species. Moreover, the alfalfa field of Pakdasht and barley field of Pakdasht had the highest and lowest evenness, respectively. Based on the similarity index, green land of Abureyhan campus and alfalfa field of Pakdasht had the most similarity (%75) and barley of Pakdasht and Gharchak with alfalfa field of Pakdasht had the lowest similarity (%33).
Carabid beetles are important biological control agents in agroecosystems and their study of biodiversity help to pest management program. The results of this study enhanced our knowledge regarding the diversity of Carabid species in central Iran.
Azadbakhsh, S., and Nozari, J. 2015. Checklist of the Iranian ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae). Zootaxa, 4024 (1): 1-108.
Avgin, S. S., and Luff, M. L. 2010. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as bioindicator of human impact. Munis Entomology and Zoology, 5(1): 209 -215.
Ejtehadi, H., Sepehry, A., and Akkafi, H.R. 2009. Methods of measuring biodiversity. Ferdowsi University of Mashahad Publication, Mashhad, Iran. (in Farsi).
Ghahari, H. 2018. Species diversity of Carabidae (Coleoptera) in fruit orchads and rice fields of Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Journal of Experimental Animal Biology, 7 (1): 97-106.
Ghobadi, H., Ghajarieh, H., Nozari, J., and Azadbakhsh, S. 2018. The faunistic investigation of ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae) from south east of Tehran province, Iran. Iranian Journal of Forest and Range Protection Research, 16 (2): 244-249. (in Farsi with English abstract).
Goulet, H. 2003. Biodiversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Canadian agricultural soils. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 83: 259-264.
Hummel, J.D., Dosdall, L.M., Clayton, G.W., Harker, K.N., and O'Donovan, J.T. 2012. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) diversity, activity density, and community structure in a diversified agroecosystem. Environmental Entomology, 41(1): 72-80.
Khanjani, M. 2009. Field crop pests in Iran. 5th edition. Bu-Ali Sina University Press. Hamedan, Iran. (in Farsi).
Kromp, B. 1999. Carabid beetles in sustainable agriculture: a review on pest control efficacy, cultivation impacts and enhancement. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 74: 187-228.
Larochelle, A. and M.C. Larivière. 2007. Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera): synopsis of supraspecific taxa. Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand. P. 188.
Larochelle, A., and M.C Lariviere. 2003. A natural history of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of America north of Mexico. Published by Pensoft, Bulgaria. P. 563.
Lobl, I., and Smetana A. 2003. Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Volume I. Archostemata- Myxophaga- Adephaga. Apollo Books. P. 819.
Powell, J.A. 2009. Encyclopedia of insects. Academic Press. P. 1132.
Rezaye Nodeh, M., Afshari, A., Yazdanian, M., and Assadeh, G.H. 2011. Biodiversity of Carabidae beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in agroecosystems of Azadshahr region, Golestan province, northern Iran. Agroecology, 3 (3): 358-370. (in Farsi with English abstract).
Seaby R.M., and Henderson, P.A. 2006. Species diversity and richness. Version 4. Pisces Conservation Ltd., Lymington, England.
Triplehorn, C.A., and Johnson, N. F. 2005. Borror and Delong’s introduction to the study of insects. 7th Edition. Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, USA. P. 864.
Weigmann, G. 1973. Zur Okologie der Collembolen und Oribatiden im Grenzbereich Land/Meer (Collembola, Insecta - Oribatei, Acari). Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 186: 295–391.