بازدارندگی تخم‌ریزی، کاهش نتاج و وزن توسط Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) در حبوبات‌ تیمار شده با دو فرمولاسیون نانوسیلیکا

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشیار دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استادیار دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

در این پژوهش تأثیر فرمولاسیون­ های Aerosil® و Nanosav نانوذرات سیلیکا بر بازدارندگی تخم­ریزی سوسک چهار نقطه­ ای حبوبات،Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)  در لوبیا چشم بلبلی، ماش سیاه، ماش سبز، نخود و عدس با غلظت­ های: 50، 100، 200 و 300 میلی­ گرم بر کیلو­گرم بررسی شد. بذور پس از تیمار، در معرض حشرات کامل (نر و ماده) یک ­روزه قرار گرفتند و 5 روز بعد تعداد تخم­ ها شمارش گردید. بیشترین بازدارندگی در ماش سیاه با میانگین 96 درصد در غلظت 300 میلی­گرم بر کیلو­گرم از Aerosil® مشاهده شد. در آزمایش دوم تأثیر این فرمولاسیون­ ها بر تفریخ تخم و ظهور حشرات کامل بررسی گردید. بذرهای حبوبات حاوی یک عدد تخم یک­ روزه با غلظت­ های ذکر شده در بالا تیمار گردید. کمترین میزان تفریخ تخم و ظهور حشرات کامل در عدس به ترتیب با میانگین 13 و 1 درصد، در غلظت 300 میلی­ گرم بر کیلو­گرم از Aerosil® مشاهده شد. در آزمایش سوم کارآیی ترکیبات ذکر شده بر کاهش وزن و تعداد نتاج پس از 3 ماه بررسی شد. حبوبات مورد نظر با غلظت‌های بیان شده در آزمایش اول تیمار و در معرض حشرات کامل (نر و ماده) یک ­روزه قرار گرفتند. کمترین کاهش وزن در عدس با میانگین 10 درصد بوسیله غلظت 300 میلی گرم بر کیلو­گرم Nanosav ایجاد شد. کمترین تعداد نتاج ظاهر شده نیز در عدس با میانگین 40 عدد در غلظت 300 میلی­ گرم بر کیلو­گرم از Nanosav دیده شد. هر دو فرمولاسیون می­ توانند به طور مؤثر در مدیریت تلفیقی C. maculatus استفاده گردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Oviposition deterrence, progeny reduction and weight loss by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) in pulses treated with two nanosilica formulations

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Yousefnezhad Irani 1
  • Y. Karimpour 2
  • M. Ziaee 3
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Urmia University
2 Associate Professor, Urmia University
3 Assistant Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Legumes are an important source of protein for humans in the world. Leguminous food is mostly attacked in storage environments by several pests. Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) is considered as the main pest of pulses. Chemical insecticides and fumigants are the main methods to control stored product pests. By considering adverse effects of these compounds, it is needed to develop alternative control strategies that will be effective, biodegradable, cost-effective, and without any adverse effect on non-target organisms. Nano particles are the new generation of these safe products.
Materials and Methods
In this study, the effect of two silicon dioxide nanoparticles, Aerosil® and Nanosav was investigated on oviposition deterrence of C. maculatus in four concentrations viz. 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg.kg-1 on 5 pulse seeds of cowpea, black gram, green gram, chickpea, and lentil. Pulse seeds after treatment were exposed to one-day old male and female adults. Five days after treatment the laid eggs were counted. The second experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of two silica nanoparticles on egg hatching and adult emergence of pulse bruchid. For this purpose, the legume seeds each with a one-day old egg were treated with the same concentrations; then the seeds were assessed for hatching eggs and emerging adults. In another experiment, the effect of these formulations was checked out on weight loss and progeny production after 3 months. Declared pulses were treated with the same concentrations and then exposed to 1-day old male and female adults. After 3 months, the percentage of weight loss and the number of produced progeny were recorded.
Results
The most oviposition deterrence was on black gram with the mean percentage of 96% in 300 mg.kg-1 of Aerosil®. The least percentage of hatched eggs and emerged adults was on lentil with the mean of 13 and 1% with 300 mg.kg-1 of Aerosil®, respectively.
The least weight loss was on lentil with the mean percentage of 10 with 300 mg.kg-1 of Nanosav. The least progeny production was induced with 300 mg.kg-1 of Nanosav on lentil with the mean number of 40 progeny.
Discussion
The results of this study showed that Aerosil® was more effective than Nanosav, but two silica nanoparticles had enough efficiency against infestation of C. maculatus and can be used effectively in the integrated management of C. maculatus in pulses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • C. maculatus
  • Nano Silica
  • Pulses
  • Infestation
  • Integrated management
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