تأثیر کاربرد جداگانه و توأم زنبور پارازیتوئید Lysiphlebus fabarum و کفشدوزک شکارگر Hippodamia variegata، در کنترل شته جالیز Aphis gossypii روی خیار

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دانشیار دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 استاد دانشگاه ایالتی کانزاس

چکیده

شته جالیز Aphis gossypii یکی از آفات مهم گیاهان گلخانه‌ای از جمله خیار می‌باشد. در مطالعه‌ی حاضر تأثیر کاربرد جداگانه و توأم زنبور پارازیتوئید Lysiphlebus fabarum و کفشدوزک Hippodamia variegata به منظور کنترل این شته مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. تکرارها در کلیه‌ی تیمارها شامل 10 عدد گیاه خیار بود که هر کدام به پنج شته‌ی بال‌دار آلوده شدند و همراه با یک گیاه حامل "باقلا-شته سیاه باقلا" در یک قفس قرار گرفتند. در ادامه با معرفی مرتب یک شاخه باقلا، محتوی شته‌های مومیایی شده (دو روز در میان)، یک جفت حشره کامل نر و ماده کفشدوزک (سه روز در میان) و یا کاربرد هم‌زمان هر دوی این عوامل، تغییرات جمعیت شته جالیز طی هفت هفته در سه تیمار بررسی شد. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده، زنبور به تنهایی قادر به تنظیم جمعیت شته جالیز نبود، اما کفشدوزک H. variegata، عملکرد به مراتب بهتری از خود نشان داد. بهترین عملکرد هنگام کاربرد توأم زنبور و کفشدوزک بدست آمد به گونه‌ای که اوج جمعیت شته بطور معنی‌داری تعدیل شد و همچنین تعداد شته‌های زنده در پایان آزمایش در این تیمار (7/9±145) در مقایسه با کاربرد جداگانه زنبور (7/26±357) و یا کفشدوزک (9/6±189) بطور معنی‌داری کمتر بود. همچنین در خصوص تعداد مومیایی‌ها در پایان آزمایش اختلاف معنی‌داری بین تیمارها (کاربرد جداگانه زنبور: 9/22±145؛ کاربرد توأم: 8/11±177) مشاهده نشدکه نشان‌دهنده‌ی عدم تمایل مراحل مختلف رشدی کفشدوزک ‌H. variegataدر تغذیه از مراحل نابالغ زنبور L. fabarum می‌باشد. در یک جمع‌بندیکاربرد هم‌زمان این دو عامل کنترل زیستی در مهار شته جالیز مؤثر بنظر می‌رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of single and simultaneous application of the parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum and the ladybird beetle, Hippodamia variegata on control of Aphis gossypii on cucumber

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Mohammadi 1
  • A. Rasekh 2
  • M. Esfandiari 2
  • J. P. Michaud 3
  • F. Kocheili 2
1 Ph.D student, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
2 Associate Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
3 Professor, Kansas State University
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives
The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, is an important pest on greenhouse crops such as the cucumber. Natural enemies have often been used successfully to control greenhouse pests. Among different pests, aphids because of their high reproductive rate are particularly difficult to control biologically. 
Materials and Methods
In this study, the effects of separate and simultaneous application of the parasitoid wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum and the predator ladybird beetle Hippodamia variegata were studied to control A. gossypii on cucumber as an integrated pest management program. The replicates (n= 10) in all treatments included 10 cucumber plants in separate pots and were infected with five winged A. gossypii placed in a cage with a banker plant system of Vicia fabae-Aphis fabae. With the introduction of mummified aphids on a bean shoot (every two days), a pair of male and female adult ladybird beetles (every three days) or simultaneous application of both biocontrol agents, the numbers of aphids were counted in the three treatments.
Results
The results revealed that the parasitoid wasp L. fabarum alone was unable to control A. gossypii, but H. variegata performed better. The best performance was observed for simultaneous application of both biocontrol agents. Moreover, in the combined agents’ treatment, the number of A. gossypii on the both lower and upper cucumber leaves was not significantly different compare to other treatments that biological agentswere used seperatly. The number of mummified aphids did not differ between treatments at the end of the experiments. This is indicative of the tendency for ladybird beetles to feed on different growth stages of non-parasitized aphids compare to parasitized aphids containing immature stages of L. fabarum.
Discussion
The results indicate thatthe simultaneous application of both biocontrol agents is effective for the control of A. gossypii, although more research under greenhouse condition is needed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphis fabae
  • Biological control
  • Banker plant
  • Lysiphlebus fabarum
  • Hippodamia variegata
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