تاثیر صابون روغن نارگیل و عصاره فرآوری‌شده فلفل قرمز در مقایسه با کنه‌کش پروپارژیت روی کنه انجیر،Eotetranychus hirsti Baker & Pritchard، در شرایط صحرایی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﻋﻠﻢ و ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ شعبه ﻛﺎﺷﻤﺮ

2 دانشیار ﻣﻮﺳﺴﻪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎت ﮔﻴﺎهﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ کشور

3 مربی، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ شعبه کاشمر

4 مربی، ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎت و آﻣﻮزش ﻛﺸﺎورزی و ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺧﺮاﺳﺎن رﺿﻮی، شعبه ﻛﺎﺷﻤﺮ

چکیده

کنه تارتن انجیر، Acari:(Tetranychidae) Eotetranychus hirsti Baker & Pritchard یکی از مهم­ترین آفات درختان انجیر در اﯾﺮان و ﺑﺴﯿﺎری از ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ. این آفت موجب ریزش برگ ­ها شده و خسارت قابل توجهی به بار می‌آورد. به­ طوری­ که کشاورزان هر ساله برای کنترل جمعیت این آفت از سموم شیمیایی مختلفی استفاده می‌کنند. با توجه به مصرف تازه‌خوری میوه انجیر و در راستای تولید محصول­ سالم و توسعه مصرف آفت‌کش‌های غیر­شیمیایی، تأثیر غلظت­ های 1500 و 2000 پی ­پی ­ام آفت­ کش حاوی صابون روغن نارگیل (پالیزین®)، عصاره فرآوری­ شده فلفل قرمز (تنداکسیر®)، کنه­ کش پروپارژیت (اومایت®) با غلظت 1000 پی ­پی­ ام، آب‌پاشی و شاهد (بدون محلول‌پاشی) در شهرستان بردسکن، در سال­ های 1394 و 1395 انجام شد. محلول‌ پاشیدر هر سال در اوایل مرداد اجرا و نمونه­ برداری از برگ در زمان ­های یک روز قبل از محلول‌پاشی و 3، 7، 14، 21 و 28 روز بعد از محلول‌پاشی انجام شد. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان داد که از نظر مرگ و میر مراحل مختلف زیستی کنه تارتن انجیر، بین تیمارهای مورد آزمایش و در زمان ­های مختلف اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود داشت. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده، کاربرد ترکیبات گیاهی از جمله عصاره فرآوری­ شده فلفل قرمز در مقایسه با کنه­ کش پروپارژیت به طور معنی ­داری موجب کاهش بیشتر جمعیت کنه انجیر شد.همچنین میانگین درصد تلفات تیمار عصاره فرآوری­ شده فلفل قرمز، روی مراحل مختلف رشدی آفت شامل تخم، لارو و مرحله پوره و بالغ، در زمان 3 روز بعد از محلول ­پاشی به ترتیب، 0/99، 1/98 و 2/90 درصد در سال اول و 0/98، 4/94 و 2/96 درصد در سال دوم بود و در زمان 28 روز پس از محلول­ پاشی به ترتیب، 9/97، 6/97 و 6/91 درصد در سال اول و 4/98، 7/97 و 3/97 درصد در سال دوم بدست آمد. بر اساس نتایج تحقیق حاضر، محلول­ پاشی درختان انجیر با حشره­ کش حاوی عصاره فرآوری­ شده فلفل قرمز (تنداکسیر®)، با غلظت 2000 پی ­پی ­ام، برای کنترل خسارت کنه انجیر می­ تواند توصیه شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of coconut oil soap and red pepper extract as compared to propargite acaricide on fig mite, Eotetranychus hirsti Baker & Pritchard, under field conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Mahmoodi 1
  • H. Farazmand 2
  • I. Jabaleh 3
  • M. Sirjani 4
1 M.Sc. graduate, University of Science and Culture, Kashmar Branch
2 Associate Professor, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection
3 Lecturer, University of Science and Culture, Kashmar Branch
4 Lecturer, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Fig mite, Eotetranychus hirsti Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important pests of fig trees in Iran and most parts of the world. This pest causes the leaves to fall and reduce the quantity and quality of the product. Several different insecticides have been used to control this mite.
Materials and Methods
Due to the consumption of fresh fig and in order to produce healthy crops and to develop non-chemical pesticides, the application of coconut botanical soap (Palizin® SL70%), red pepper extract (Tondexir® EC85%), and propargite (Omite®, EC57%,) were tested in the fields of Bardaskan region, during 2015-2016. The botanical insecticides (1500 & 2000 ppm concentrations), propargite acaricide (2000 ppm) and water were sprayed over the whole canopy during July to August. Samplings were carried out one day before and 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after spraying. At each sampling time, the total number of egg, larvae and active stages (nymph and imago) of fig mite on 4 leaves per tree were counted. Treatments were compared based on mortality rate and efficacy percentage. Data was analyzed based on a completely block randomized design using SAS software. Mean comparison was done using Tukey's test.
Results
The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between all treatments and different times, on all developmental stages of fig mite. Based on the field studies, the application of botanical components, including the red pepper extract, compared with the propargite acaricide, caused a further decrease in the population of fig mites. The highest mortality rates for eggs, larvae and active stages (nymph and imago) of fig mite were observed in red pepper extract and coconut botanical soap treatments, and the lowest mortality rates was recorded in control treatment. The mean efficacy percentage of red pepper extract (2000 ppm) treatment for eggs, larvae and active stages (nymph and imago) were 97.9, 95.1, 92.2 in 3 days, 98.7, 94.2, 93.5 in 7 days, 96.0, 88.9, 89.3 in 14 days, 98.8, 93.7, 92.8 in 21 days and 97.1, 96.8 and 92.7 in 28 days after spraying, respectively. Also, the mean efficacy percentage of coconut botanical soap (2000 ppm) treatment for egg, larvae and active stages (nymph and imago) were 88.9, 89.2, 87.0 in 3 days, 89.2, 87.7, 86.3 in 7 days, 87.1, 86.0, 87.6 in 14 days, 86.6, 83.5, 83.4 in 21 days and 87.5, 87.6 and 90.9 in 28 days after spraying, respectively.
Discussion
Therefore, red pepper extract (Tondexir®) spraying with 2000 ppm concentration, over the whole canopy of figs trees, were effective in decreasing fig mite damage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fig
  • Fig mite
  • Eotetranychus hirsti
  • Tondexir
  • Palizin
  • Propargite
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