واکنش تابعی وابسته به مرحله رشدی کفشدوزک Nephus arcuatus با تغذیه از شپشک آرد‌آلود جنوب Nipaecoccus viridis

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز و استادیار پژوهشکده خرما و میوه های گرمسیری

2 دانشیار دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 استاد دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

4 دانشیار دانشگاه تهران

5 استادیار دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

در کنترل بیولوژیک کاربردی ابتدایی ­ترین روش ارزیابی کارایی شکارگرها، استفاده از واکنش تابعی و پارامترهای حاصل از آن شامل قدرت جستجو (a) و زمان دستیابی (Th) به طعمه می­ باشد. در این تحقیق واکنش تابعی لارو سن یک تا چهار و نر و ماده بالغ کفشدوزک Nephus arcuatus مهمترین شکارگر شپشک Nipaecoccus viridis مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج، نوع واکنش تابعی برای لاروهای سن یک تا چهار و  نر و ماده بالغ کفشدوزک به تراکم­ های مختلف پوره سن دو شپشک به ترتیب نوع دوم، دوم، سوم، سوم، دوم و دوم تعیین شد. مقدار پارامترهای a و Th برای لارو سن یک به ترتیب 1139/0 بر­ساعت و 417/11 ساعت، سن دو 3237/0 بر­ساعت و 7013/4 ساعت، نر بالغ 2233/0 برساعت و 4711/1 ساعت و ماده بالغ 2836/0 بر­ساعت و 0198/1 ساعت تعیین شد. ضریب b و Th برای لارو سن سه 0195/0 برساعت و 7396/1 ساعت و سن چهار 00774/0 بر­ساعت و 4912/0 ساعت براورد شد. حداکثر نرخ حمله در لارو سن چهار و سپس ماده و نر بالغ و به ترتیب 6/48، 5/23 و 3/16 طعمه تعیین شد. مقایسه پارامترها نشان داد قدرت جستجوگری افراد تفاوت معناداری در یافتن طعمه با یکدیگر ندارد اما زمان دستیابی به طور معناداری با افزایش سن لاروی از لارو سن یک تا چهار افزایش و در ماده­ ها بیشتر از نرها بود. بر اساس نتایچ بدست آمده، استفاده از لارو سن سه، چهار و ماده بالغ کفشدوزک در زمان بالا بودن جمعیت پوره سن دو شپشک می­ تواند کنترل موفقی در کاهش جمعیت آن فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Stage-Specific functional response of Nephus arcuatus to Nipaecoccus viridis

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Zarghami 1
  • F. Kocheili 2
  • M. S. Mossadegh 3
  • H. Allahyari 4
  • A. Rasekh 5
چکیده [English]

Background and objectives
Understanding the functional response of a predator to its prey and its parameters including attack rate and handling time, are one of the basic methods in applied biological control for evaluation of the efficiency of a predator. Nephus arcuatus is one of the most important biological control agents of Nipaecoccus viridis.
Material and Methods
In this study, a laboratory study has been conducted to evaluate the stage-specific functional response of larval stages and adult females and males of N. arcuatus to varying densities of N. viridis 2nd instar nymph. Experimental conditions were based on optimal temperature for N. arcuatus activities, 30±1ºC, 65±5% RH, and 14L:10D photoperiod.
Results and Discussion
The shape of functional response curve and the functional response parameters were determined respectively by logistic regression and nonlinear least square regression. The 1st instar, 2nd instar larvae, adult males as well as adult females exhibited a type II functional response. Attack rate (a) and handling time (Th) were estimated to be 0.1139 h-1 and 11.4117 h for the 1st instar, 0.3237 h-1 and 4.7013 h for 2nd instar larvae, 0.2233h-1 and 1.4711 h for adult males, and 0.2836h-1 and 1.0198 h for adult females, respectively. In contrast, the 3rd instar and 4th instar larvae of N. arcuatus exhibited a type III functional response. Constant b and handling time were estimated to be 0.0195 and 1.7396 h for the 3rd instar, and 0.00774 and 0.4912 h for 4th instar larvae, respectively. Our results indicated that estimated attack rates did not change significantly between different stages of N. arcuatus with similar functional response curve. In contrast, the handling times of N. arcuatus to its prey increased as the larval age of this predator increased, also females had longer handling time than adult males. Based on the maximum predation rate (T/Th), the 4th instar larva was the most voracious stage (48.56 prey/d) followed by the adult female (23.53 pey/d) and male (16.32 egg/d) N. arcuatus. These findings suggest that the voracity of all stages of N. arcuatus toward N. viridis hold good promises for a use of especially simultaneously 4th instar larvae, and adult males and females of N. arcuatus in a biological control program against N. viridis in orchards and on ornamental plants.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nephus arcuatus
  • Nipaecoccus vridis
  • Functional response
Abdollahi Ahi, Gh., Afshari, A., Baniameri, V., Dadpour Moghanloo, H., Asadeh, Gh., and Yazdanian, M. 2012. Functional response of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Col.:Coccinellidae) on citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) in laboratory conditions. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 35(1): 1-15. (in Farsi with English absract).
Alizadeh, M.S., Mossadegh, M.S., andEsfandiari, M. 2013. Natural enemies of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae) and their population fluctuations in Ahvaz,southwest of Iran. Journal of Crop Protection, 2 (1): 13-21.
Allahyari, H., Fard, P.A., and  Nozari, J. 2004. Effects of host on func­tional response of offspring in two populations of Trissolcus grandis on the sunn pest. Journal of Applied Entomology, 128 (1): 39–43.
Al-Rawy, M.A., Kaddou, I.K., and Al-omar, M.A. 1977. The Present status of the spherical mealybug, Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Iraq. Bulletin of the Biological Research Centre (Baghdad),8: 3-15
Asadeh, Gh.A., and Mossadegh, M.S. 1993. Investigation on the mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) fauna of the Khuzestan province, southwest Iran. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 16: 76–81.(in Farsi with English absract).
Bayoumy, M.H., 2011. Foragingbehavior of the coccinellid Nephus includes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in response to Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with particular emphasis on larval parasitism. EnvironmentalEntomology, 40 (4): 835-843.
Boushi, S. 2017. Investigation the biology and population dynamics of the cotton mealybugs, Phenaecoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hem.: Pseudococcidae and identification of its natural enemies on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran.
CABI/EPPO. (2017). Nipaecoccus viridis. Distribution maps of plant pests no. 446. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Farhadi, Z., Esfandiari, M., Mossadegh, M.S., Shishehbor, P. 2018. Prey stage preference and functional response of the coccinellid Hyperaspis polita, feeding on the mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis. Plant Pest Research, 7(4):63-78.(in Farsi with English absract).
Forouzan, A. 2014. Biology and functional response of Nephus arcuatus Kapur ;adybird on cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley. M. Sc. Thesis, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
García Morales, M., Denno, B.D., Miller, D.R., Miller, G.L., Ben-Dov, Y., Hardy, N.B. 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. Database. doi: 10.1093/database/bav118. http://scalenet.info.
Ghanbari, Gh., Ghajarie, H., Alichi, M., Kheradmand, K. 2011. A Study of the Population Dynamics of Nipaecoccus viridis Newstead in Shiraz region: effective factors on population decrease. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 34(2): 47-58. (in Farsi with English absract).
Hassell, M.P. 1978. The Dynamics of arthropod predator-prey systems. Princeton University Press, Princeton,New Jersey.
Hassell, M.P. 2000. The spatial and temporal dynamics of host parasitoid interactions. Oxford University Press, London, UK.
Holling, C.S. 1959. The components of predation as revealed by a study of small-mammal predation of the European pine sawfly. Canadian Entomologist, 91: 293-320.
Holling, C.S. 1965. The functional response of predators to prey density and its role in mimicry and population regulation. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 45: 1–60.
Holling, C.S. 1966. Functional response of invertebrate predators to prey density. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 48: 1-86.
Hodek, I., and  Honek, A. 1996. Ecology of Coccinellidae. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherland.
Houck, M.A., and Strauss, R.E. 1985. The comparative study of functional responses: experimental design and statistical interpretation. Canadian Entomologist, 117: 617–629.
Jalali, M.A., Tirry, L., De Clercq, P. 2010. Effect of temperature on thefunctional response of  Adalia bipunctata to Myzus persicae. Biological Control, 55: 261–269.
Juliano, S.A. 2001. Nonlinear curve fitting: predation and functional response curve. In Scheiner, S.M. and Gurevitch, J. (Eds). Design and analysis of ecological experiments. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 178–216.
Koch, R.L., Hutchison, W.D. Venette, R.C., and Heimpel,G.E.2003. Susceptibility of immature monarchbuttery, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae:Danainae), to predation by Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae). Biological Control, 28: 265-270.
Khodaman, A. 1993. Biological study of mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis and possibility of its biological control, by crypt ladybird and other available coccinellids in Khuzestan province (southwest Iran). M. Sc. Thesis, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
Li, T., Yumei, Z., Cai, T., Changge, Z., and Xiaojun, L.  2005. Study on functional response of Nephus ryuguus (Kamiya) to Oracella acuta (Lobdell).  Natural Enemies of Insects, 1: 27-31.
Löbl, I., and Smetana, A. (Eds.). 2007. Catalogue of palearctic Coleoptera. Vol. 4: Elateroidea, Derodontoidea, Bostrichoidea, Lymexyloidea, Cleroidea and Cucujoidea. Apollo Books, Stenstrup, Denmark.
Luck, R.F. 1985. Principles of arthropod predation. In Huffaker, C.B. and  Rabb, R.L. (Eds). Ecological Entomology. Wiley, New York, pp. 497–530.
Mahdian, K., Tirry, L., De Clercq, P., 2007. Functional response of Picromerus bidens: effect of host plant. Journal of Apply Entomology, 131(3): 160–164.
Milonas, P.G., Kontodimas, D.CH., and Martinou, A.F. 2011. A predator̕ s functional response: influence of prey species and size. Biological Control, 59: 141-146.
Moghadam, M. 2013. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data. ZooKeys, 334: 1-92.
Mossadegh, M.S., Eslamizadeh, R., and Esfandiari, M. 2008. Biological study of mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (New.) and possibility of its biological control by Cryptolaemus montrouzier Mul. in citrus orchards of north Khuzestan. XXIII International Congress of Entomology: 31 Jul.-3 Aug. South Africa.
Mossadegh, M.S., Vafaei, Sh., Farsi, A., Zarghami, S., Esfandiari, M., Dehkordi, S., Fazelinejad, F., and Seyfollahi, F. (2015). Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae), its natural enemies and host plants in Iran. Proceedings of the 1st Iranian International Congress of Entomology, Tehran, Iran. P. 159-167.
Mukerji, M.K., and Le Roux, E.R. 1969. The effect of predator age on the functional response of Podisus maculiventris  prey size of Galleria mellonella. The Canadian Entomologist, 101 (3): 314-327.
Murdoch, W.W. 1969. Switching in general predators: experiments on predator specificity and stability of prey populations. Ecological Monographs, 39: 335-364.
Murdoch, W.W. and Oaten,  A. 1975. Predation and population stability. Advances in Ecological Research, 9:2-131.
Nakhai Madih, S., Ramezani, L., Zarghami, S. and Zandi-Sohani, N. (2016-2017) Functional response of different life stages of Hyperaspis polita feeding on cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 47(2): 303-311.(in Farsi with English absract).
Novin, M. 2000. The biology and populationfluctuations of Nipaecoccus viridis (News.)and its natural enemies in citrus orchards ofDezful. M. Sc. Thesis, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
Omkar and Pervez, A. 2004. Functional and numerical response of Propylea dissecta (Col., Coccinellidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 128:140-146.
Pervez, A. and Omkar. 2005. Functional responses of coccinellidpredators: an illustration of a logistic approach. JournalofInsect Science5(5):1-6.
Ramindo, A.A.C., and van Harten, W.A. 2000. An annotated checklist of the Coccinellidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Yemen. Fauna of Arabia, 18:211-243.
Sabelis, M.W. 1992. Predatory arthropods. In Crawley, M. J (Ed.). Natural enemies: The population biology of predators, parasites and diseases. Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp. 225–264.
Sahayara, K., Kumar, V., Avery, P.B., 2015. Functional response of Rhynocoris kumarii (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) to different population densities of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) recorded in laboratory. Eur. J. Entomol. 112(1): 69-74.
SAS Institute. 2008. SAS user׳s guide: statistics, version 9.2. SAS institute, Cary, NC.
Seagraves, M.P. 2009. Lady beetle oviposition behavior in response to the trophic environment. Biological Control, 51(2): 313-322.
Seyfollahi, F., Esfandiari, M., Mossadegh, M.S., Rasekh, A. 2019. Functional response of Hyperaspis polita (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) to the recently invaded mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae). Neotropical of Entomology, 48 (3): 484–495.
Sharaf, N.S. and Meyerdirk, D.E. 1987. A review of the biology, ecology and control of Nipaecoccus viridis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, 66:1-18.
Thompson, D.J. 1975. Towards a predator–prey model incorporating age structure: the effects of predator and prey size on the predation of Daphnia magna by Ischnura elegans. Journal of Animal Ecology, 44: 907–916.
Trexler, J.C., Charles, E.M. and Travis, J.1988.How canthe functional response best be determined? Oecologia, 76: 206-214.
Van Den Meiracker, R.A.F. and Sabelis, M.W. 1999.  Do functional responses of predatory arthropods a plateau? A case study of Orius insidiosus with western flower thrips as prey reach. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 90: 323-329.
Veeravel, R., and Baskaran, P. 1997.Searching behaviour of two coccinellid predators, Coccinella transversalis Fab. and Cheilomenes sexmaculatus Fab., on eggplant infested with Aphis gossypii Glov. Insect Science and its Application, 17(3-4), 363-368.
Wells, M.L., and McPherson, R.M. 1999. Populationd ynamics of three coccinellids in flue-cured tabaccoand functional response of Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on tobacco aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 28: 768-773.
Zarghami, S. 2014. Investigation of life table parameters and predation efficacy ofpredatory coccinellid, Nephus arcuatus Kapur on mealybug Nipacoccus virdis(Newstead) at laboratory conditions. Ph. D. Thesis. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Ahvaz, Iran.
Zarghami, S., Kocheili, F., Mossadegh, M.S., Allahyari, H., and Rasekh, A. 2014 a. Effect of temperature on population growth and life table parameters of Nephus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). European Journal of Entomology, 111 (2): 199-206.
Zarghami, S., Kocheili, F., Mossadegh, M.S., Allahyari, H., Rasekh, A. 2014b. Prey preference and consumption capacity of Nephus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae):  the influence of prey stage, prey size and feeding experience. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 24(9): 1062-1072.
Zarghami, S., Mossadegh, M.S., Kocheili, F., Allahyari, H., Rasekh, A. 2016.Functional responses of Nephus arcuatus Kapur (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the most important predator of spherical mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead). Psyche, 1-9.