بررسی اثر اسیدیته آب روی کارایی حشره‌کش‌های اسپیروتترامات و ایمیداکلوپراید علیه پسیل معمولی پسته Agonoscena pistaciae در شرایط صحرایی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، واحد رفسنجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رفسنجان

2 استادیار، واحد رفسنجان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رفسنجان، ایران

3 پژوهشکده پسته، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رفسنجان

10.22055/ppr.2019.15286

چکیده

یکی از مسائل مهمی که روی کارایی حشره‌کش‌ها بر علیه پسیل معمولی پسته،Agonoscena pistaciae Burckardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae) مهم‌ترین آفت از گروه آفات درجه اول پسته ایران، موثر است، اسیدیته آبی است که برای سم‌پاشی استفاده می‌شود. در ‌این پژوهش اثر حشره‌کش‌های اسپیروتترامات (مونتو®SC 10%) و ایمیداکلوپراید (کنفیدور®SC 35%) به‌همراه ترکیبات کاهنده اسیدیته آب (رکتیفایر® و سیترال pH ®)، بر کاهش انبوهی جمعیت تخم و پوره‌ی پسیل معمولی پسته در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار بررسی شد. نمونه‌برداری یک روز قبل و 3، 7، 14، 21 و 28 روز پس از سم‌پاشی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اضافه نمودن سیترال pH و رکتیفایر، تاثیر معنی‌داری بر افزایش کارایی حشره‌کش‌های اسپیروتترامات و ایمیداکلوپراید، برای کاهش جمعیت تخم نداشت و تنها در هفت روز بعد از سم‌پاشی، ترکیب ایمیداکلوپراید + رکتیفایر (58/91 درصد کاهش جمعیت تخم) سبب افزایش معنی‌دار کارایی آن شد. نتایج تاثیر تیمارهای مختلف روی جمعیت پوره پسیل معمولی پسته نشان داد که در تمام زمان‌های نمونه‌برداری میزان تاثیر حشره‌کش‌ به‌همراه مواد کاهنده اسیدیته بیش‌تر از میزان تاثیر کاربرد حشره‌کش به‌تنهایی بود، اما تاثیر آن‌ها معنی‌دار نبود و فقط در سه و هفت روز بعد از تیمار، ترکیب رکتیفایر توانست تاثیر حشره‌کش‌ ایمیداکلوپراید را به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش دهد، به‌طوری‌که درصد کاهش جمعیت پوره در تیمار ایمیداکلوپراید + رکتیفایر در روزهای مذکور نمونه‌برداری 13/90 و 23/93 درصد ثبت شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of water pH on efficiency of spirotetramat and imidacloprid against Agonoscena pistaciae under field conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • B. Moradi 1
  • Z. Sheibani Tezerji 2
  • M. Basirat 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University
2 Department of Entomology, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Water pH is one of the most important factors that affects the inefficiency of insecticides against the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), as the most important pest in Iran's pistachio orchards.
Materials and Methods
In this study, the effect of insecticides including spirotetramat (Monvento® SC 10%) and imidacloprid (Confidor® SC 35%) and pH reducing agents, such as Rectiphier® and Citral pH®, on the reduction of population density of eggs and nymphs of common pistachio psyllid were investigated under field conditions. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications. The samplings were done one day before and 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after spraying.
Results
The results indicated that adding Rectiphier and Citral pH to the insecticides had no significant effect on increasing the efficacy of spirotetramat and imidacloprid on eggs population of pistachio psyllid, and only on 7 days after spraying, adding of Rectiphier to imidacloprid significantly increased the efficiency of the insecticide, and reduced the amount of oviposition of A. pistaciae (91.58%). The results of the effect of different treatments on nymphs population density of A. pistaciae showed that the effect of insecticides + pH reducing agents was more than application of insecticides alone, but their effect was not significant, and only on 3 and 7 days after spraying, Rectiphier significantly increased the effect of imidacloprid. The reduction of nymphal population densities in imidacloprid + Rectiphier treatment were 90.13% and 93.23%, on those sampling dates, respectively.
Discussion
PH reducers (Rectifier and Citral pH) could have the potential to increase the efficacy of spirotetramate and imidacloprid or other insecticides to control A. pistaciae and produce healthy crops, reduce costs, environmental hazards and side-effects on natural enemies and to minimize application of chemical insecticides. However, more research is needed with regard to the effect of different compounds of pH reducer, different concentrations of those compounds and also the effect of these compounds on different water pH.
 
Keywods: Spirotetramat, Imidacloprid, Buffer, Rectiphier, Citral pH, Water quality,Hydrolysis.
 
Background and Objectives
Water pH is one of the most important factors that affects the inefficiency of insecticides against the common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), as the most important pest in Iran's pistachio orchards.
Materials and Methods
In this study, the effect of insecticides including spirotetramat (Monvento® SC 10%) and imidacloprid (Confidor® SC 35%) and pH reducing agents, such as Rectiphier® and Citral pH®, on the reduction of population density of eggs and nymphs of common pistachio psyllid were investigated under field conditions. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications. The samplings were done one day before and 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after spraying.
Results
The results indicated that adding Rectiphier and Citral pH to the insecticides had no significant effect on increasing the efficacy of spirotetramat and imidacloprid on eggs population of pistachio psyllid, and only on 7 days after spraying, adding of Rectiphier to imidacloprid significantly increased the efficiency of the insecticide, and reduced the amount of oviposition of A. pistaciae (91.58%). The results of the effect of different treatments on nymphs population density of A. pistaciae showed that the effect of insecticides + pH reducing agents was more than application of insecticides alone, but their effect was not significant, and only on 3 and 7 days after spraying, Rectiphier significantly increased the effect of imidacloprid. The reduction of nymphal population densities in imidacloprid + Rectiphier treatment were 90.13% and 93.23%, on those sampling dates, respectively.
Discussion
PH reducers (Rectifier and Citral pH) could have the potential to increase the efficacy of spirotetramate and imidacloprid or other insecticides to control A. pistaciae and produce healthy crops, reduce costs, environmental hazards and side-effects on natural enemies and to minimize application of chemical insecticides. However, more research is needed with regard to the effect of different compounds of pH reducer, different concentrations of those compounds and also the effect of these compounds on different water pH.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Spirotetramat
  • imidacloprid
  • Buffer
  • Rectiphier
  • Citral pH
  • water quality
  • Hydrolysis
Alipour, A. Alizade, A. and Abbaszadeh, M. 2018. The effects of citral soap and citral activator of nonionic surfactants on spirotetramat insecticide against Agonoscena pistaciae in Rafsanjan. Pistachio and Health Journal, 1 (3): 27-32
Al-Mughrabi, K. I., Nazer, I. K., and Al-Shuraiqi, Y. T. 1992. Effect of pH of water from the King Abdallah Canal in Jordan on the stability of cypermethrin. CropProtection, 11(4): 341-344.
Aly, O. A., and Badawy, M. I. 1982. Hydrolysis of organophosphate insecticides in aqueous media. Environment International, 7(6):373-377.
Amirghasemi, T. and Soozani, J. 2008. Pistachio or green gold of Iran (planting, growing, harvesting). Agricultural and Natural Resources Engineering Organization Press, Tehran, Iran. P. 177. (In Farsi).
Basirat, M., Tajbakhsh, M. R., and Hosseinifard, S. J. 2007. Effect of the water quality on the emulsion stability of the common pesticides in pistachio orchards of Kerman province. Final report of research project of pistachio research center. 48 pp. (In Farsi with English abstract).
Brown, K. 2001. Environmental impact on herbicide performance. Proceedings of 2nd Annual Manitoba Agronomists Conference. pp. 155-158. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. Available on: http://www. umanitoba.ca/faculties/afs/MAC_proceedings/2001/pdf/ brown.pdf; 30.06.2015.
Chapman, R. A. and Cole, C. M. 1982. Observations on the influence of water and soil pH on the persistence of insecticides. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, 17(5): 487-504.
Chapman, R. A. and Harris, C. 1984. The chemical stability of formulations of some hydrolyzable insecticides in aqueous mixtures with hydrolysis catalysts. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, 19(4-5): 397-407.
Deer, H. M. and Beard, R. 2001. Effect of water pH on the chemical stability of pesticides. AG/Pesticides 14: 1-4.
Devkota, P., Spaunhorst, D. J., and Johnson, W. G. 2016. Influence of carrier water pH, hardness, foliar fertilizer, and ammonium sulfate on mesotrione efficacy. Weed Technology, 30(3): 617-628.
Farran, A., De Pablo, J. and Barceló, D. 1988. Identification of organophosphorus insecticides and their hydrolysis products by liquid chromatography in combination with UV and thermospray-mass spectrometric detection. Journal of ChromatographyA, 455: 163-172.
Gatidou, G., and Iatrou, E. 2011. Investigation of photodegradation and hydrolysis of selected substituted urea and organophosphate pesticides in water. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 18(6): 949-957.
Green, J. M. and Cahill, W. R. 2003. Enhancing the biological activity of nicosulfuron with pH adjusters. Weed Technology, 17(2): 338-345.
Green, J. M. and Hale, T. 2005. Increasing the biological activity of weak acid herbicides by increasing and decreasing the pH of the spray mixture. Journal of ASTM International, 2(6): 1-10.
Hassani, M.R., Nouri-Ganbalani, G., Izadi, H., Shojai, M., and Basirat, M. 2009. Economic injury level of the psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae, on pistachio, Pistacia vera cv. Ohadi. Journal of Insect Science, 9(1): 1-4.
Henderson, C. F. and Tilton, E. W. 1955. Tests with acaricides against the brown wheat mite. Journal of Economic Entomology, 48(2): 157-161.
Jamalizadeh, M. 2011 .The effect of pH on efficiency of used insecticides in pistachio orchard. https://mjamalizadeh.persianblog.ir/DvErXe41EYCa5bAY4q1y.
Jarvis, A. P., Johnson, S., and Morgan, E. D. 1998. Stability of the natural insecticide azadirachtin in aqueous and organic solvents. Pest Management Science, 53(3): 217-222.
Matocha, M. A. and Senseman, S. A. 2007. Trifloxysulfuron dissipation at selected pH levels and efficacy on palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Weed Technology, 21(3): 674-677.
Matocha, M. A., Krutz, L. J., Senseman, S. A., Koger, C. H., Reddy, K. N., and Palmer, E. W. 2006. Spray carrier pH effect on absorption and translocation of trifloxysulfuron in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and Texasweed (Caperonia palustris). Weed Science, 54(6): 969-973.
Mehrnejad, M. 2002. Pistachio psylla and other important psylla of Iran. Ministry of Agriculture and Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, 102 pp. (In Farsi with English abstract).
Mehrnejad, M. 2014. Pistachio pests, natural enemies and control methods. Sepehr publication. P. 271. (In Farsi).
Panahi, B., Basirat, M. and Hosseinifard, S. J. 2013. The effect of liquid detergent on common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae, soil and plant. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 6(12): 794-807.
Petroff, R. 2000. Water quality and pesticide performance. From www.scarab.msu.montana.edu.
Roskamp, J. M., Turco, R. F., Bischoff, M., and Johnson, W. G. 2013. The influence of carrier water pH and hardness on saflufenacil efficacy and solubility. Weed Technology, 27(3): 527-533.
Rotich, H. K., Zhang, Z., Zhao, Y. and Li, J. 2004. The adsorption behavior of three organophosphorus pesticides in peat and soil samples and their degradation in aqueous solutions at different temperatures and pH values. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 84(4): 289-301.
Sharom, M. S., Miles, J. R. W., Harris, C. R. and McEwen, F. L. 1980. Persistence of 12 insecticides in water. Water Research, 14(8): 1089-1093.
Tahami, S. E. 2016. Effect of Spirotetramat with different hardness of water on common pistachio psyllid, Agonoscena pistaciae (Hem.: Aphalaridae) under field conditions. M. Sc. Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht, Iran. (In Farsi with English abstract).
Talebi Jahromi, Kh. 2011. Pesticides toxicology. Tehran University Press. P. 492. (In Farsi).