تأثیر فعالیت ضد‌قارچی اسانس چریش و ترکیبات آن بر شاخص‌های رشدی و آنزیم‌های موثر در بیماریزایی .Fusarium spp

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

استادیار، موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

10.22055/ppr.2019.15469

چکیده

جنس فوزاریوم دارای گسترشی جهانی است و بسیاری از گونه‌های آن، به‌ویژه Fusarium graminearum Schwabe وFusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Saccardo، می‌توانند طیف گسترده‌ای از گیاهان میزبان را آلوده کرده و باعث ایجاد انواع بیماری‌های مهم اقتصادی شوند. هدف از این مطالعه شناسایی ترکیبات تشکیل‌دهنده اسانس برگ‌های درخت بومی چریش (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.) و بررسی تأثیر آنها روی شاخص‌های رشدی و فعالیت آنزیم‌های مخرب دیواره سلولی تولید شده توسط این بیمارگرها است. برگ‌های درخت چریش از منطقه ایرانشهر استان سیستان و بلوچستان جمع‌آوری و پس از خشک‌کردن در سایه، اسانس‌گیری به روش تقطیر با آب به کمک دستگاه کلونجر انجام شد و ترکیبات اصلی آن با استفاده از کروماتوگرافی گازی - طیف‌سنجی جرمی شناسایی شدند. ترکیبات اصلی شناسایی‌شده اسانس شامل بتا المن (2/27 درصد)، کاریوفیلن (9/15 درصد) و فیتول (3/15 درصد) بودند، که دارای اثرات ضد قارچی علیه F. graminearumو F. culmorumهستند. نتایج نشان داد که با توجه به آنکه میزان بیماری زایی F. culmorum کمتر ازF. graminearum بود اما حداقل غلظت مهارکنندگی اسانس، بتا المن، کاریوفیلن و فیتول علیه F. graminearum در مقایسه با F. culmorum بالاتر بود. اسپورزایی و جوانه‌زنی اسپورهایFusarium spp. به‌ طور کامل توسط اسانس و فیتول مهار شدند. اثرات هم‌افزایی ترکیبات اصلی اسانس نشان داد که ترکیب فیتول با کاروفیلن موجب فعالیت سینرژیستی و در ترکیب با بتا المن موجب فعالیت افزایشی علیه گونه‌های Fusarium شد. اسانس و ترکیبات اصلی آن در غلظت کم، بدون تأثیری روی رشد میسلیومی قارچ‌های مورد بررسی موجب کاهش فعالیت‌های سلولاز و پکتیناز به‌ عنوان مهم‌ترین آنزیم‌های مخرب دیواره سلولی شدند. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان داد که امکان استفاده از اسانس چریش و ترکیب فیتول برای کنترل بیماری‌های ناشی از گونه‌های Fusarium وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of antifungal activity of neem essential oil and its constituents on growth performance and its enzyme effectiveness on pathogenicity to Fusarium spp.

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Khaledi
  • F. Hassani
Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
The genus Fusarium has a worldwide distribution and many of its species, especially Fusarium graminearum Schwabe and Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Smith) Saccardo can infect a wide range of host plants and cause a variety of economically important diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the constituents of essential oil from leaves of native neem tree (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.) and their effect on growth performance and activity of cell wall degrading enzymes produced by these pathogens.
Materials and Methods
The leaves of neem tree were obtained from Iranshahr region of Sistan and Baluchestan province and dried in the shade. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation using a clevenger apparatus and its major constituents were identified by gas chromatographymass spectrometry.
Results
The major constituents in the essential oil were β-elemene (27.2%), caryophyllene (15.9%) and phytol (15.3%), which have antifungal effects against F. graminearum and F. culmorum. The results showed that although the pathogenicity of F. culmorum was lower than F. graminearum, but the minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oil, βelemene, caryophyllene and phytol against F. graminearum was higher than F. culmorum. Sporulation and spores germination of Fusarium spp. were completely inhibited by essential oil and phytol. Synergistic effects of the main constituents of essential oil showed that combining phytol with caryophyllene induced a synergistic activity against Fusarium spp. and in combination with β-elemene caused an additive effect. Activities of cellulase and pectinase, as main cell wall degrading enzymes were decreased by essential oil and its main constituents at low concentration without affecting mycelial growth of fungi studied.
Discussion
The findings of this research showed that there is a possibility of using neem oil and phytol compound to control diseases caused by Fusarium species.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neem
  • Fusarium spp
  • Synergistic effects
  • Minimum inhibitory concentration
  • Pectinase
  • Cellulose
  • Phytol
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