تاثیر کشت نواری گوجه‌فرنگی و شبدر در کنترل شته جالیز Aphis gossypii Glover

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 استاد دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 دانشیار دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

10.22055/ppr.2019.15482

چکیده

در پژوهش حاضر اثرات تک ­کشتی گوجه­ فرنگی و کشت نواری گوجه­ فرنگی (T)و شبدر (C) در سه نسبت جایگزینی شامل: یک ردیف گوجه­ فرنگی و دو ردیف شبدر (1T:2C)، دو ردیف گوجه ­فرنگی و دو ردیف شبدر (2T:2C) و سه ردیف گوجه ­فرنگی و دو ردیف شبدر (3T:2C) در تراکم شته جالیز Aphis gossypii Glover روی گیاه گوجه ­فرنگی، تنوع دشمنان طبیعی آن و نیز عمکلرد هر دو محصول در مزرعه­ آزمایشی در دو سال 1395 و 1396 بررسی شد. در هر دو سال مورد مطالعه، تراکم پوره ­ها و شته ­های بالغ­ در تک ­کشتی گوج ه­فرنگی به طور معنی ­داری بیشتر از کشت­ های نواری بود. در بین کشت ­های نواری، کمترین تراکم پوره ­ها و شته ­های بالغ­ در سیستم کشت نواری 1T:2C مشاهده شد. در تحقیق حاضر 13 گونه شکارگر از روی گیاهان گوجه ­فرنگی آلوده به شته جالیز از مزرعه آزمایشی جمع ­آوری و شناسایی شد. در بین شکارگرها، گونه ­های Coccinella septempunctata L.، Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer  وChrysoperlla carnea (Stephens) فراوانی بیشتری را در هر دو سال مورد مطالعه داشتند. شاخص تنوع شانون () و نیز شاخص یکنواختی پیلو () برای ترکیب گونه­ های شکارگر در هر سه سیستم کشت نواری به طور معنی ­داری بالاتر از تک­ کشتی گوجه­ فرنگی بود. همچنین، در هر سه سیستم­ کشت نواری درصد شته ­های پارازیته نسبت به تک ­کشتی به طور معنی ­داری بیشتر بود. بالاترین نسبت برابری زمین، LER، (28/1 در سال 1395 و 30/1 در سال 1396) در سیستم کشت نواری 1T:2C مشاهده شد. بنابراین، هر سه الگوی کشت نواری گوجه ­فرنگی با شبدر به خصوص 1T:2C می­ توانند در برنامه ­های مدیریت شته جالیز در مزارع گوجه­ فرنگی توصیه شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of intercropping of tomato and clover on control of melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Kabiri Raeis Abad 1
  • S. A. A. Fathi 2
  • Gh. Nouri-Ganbalani 2
  • B. Amiri Besheli 3
1 Ph.D. Student,,, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
2 Professor, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
3 Associate Professor,, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
The melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is one of the most important pests of tomato in Iran. This aphid causes severe damage on tomato crop in northern Iran.
Materials and Methods
Present study was conducted in an experimental field, 0.3 h, in Behshahr region in Mazandaran province based on a randomized completely block design. In this study, the effectiveness of intercropping tomato (T) with clover (C) in the three combinations: (1) one row of tomato with two rows of clover (1T:2C), (2) two rows of tomato with two rows of clover (2T:2C), and (3) three rows of tomato with two rows of clover (3T:2C) along with sole tomato were assessed on the densities of melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, diversity of its natural enemies and yield of both crops in 2016 and 2017.
Results
The density of nymphs and adults of A. gossypii were significantly higher in sole tomato compared with intercrops. Among intercrops, the lowest density of nymphs and adults of A. gossypii were observed in 1T:2C intercrop. In present study, 13 predator species were collected and identified on aphid-infested plants of tomato in the experimental field. Among the predators, Coccinella septempunctata L., Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) and Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer had more abundance in the two studied years.  The Shannon diversity index () and the Pielou’s evenness index (J´) for composition of predator species were significantly higher in intercrops compared with sole tomato crop. Moreover, more nymphs and adults of A. gossypii were parasitized in all intercrops compared with sole tomato crop in 2016 and 2017. The highest value of land equivalent ratio was found in 1T: 2C (LER = 1.28 in 2016 and 1.30 in 2017) among intercrops in the two cropping seasons.  
Discussion
All the three intercropping patterns of tomato with clover including 1T:2C, 2T:2C and 3T:2C, especially 1T:2C could be recommended in management programs of the melon aphid in tomato fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphis gossypii
  • Biodiversity
  • Intercropping
  • parasitoids
  • predators
  • Yield
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