بررسی پارامترهای زیستی کنه تارتن دولکه‌ای، Tetranychus urticae، روی دو گیاه دارای ترکیبات شبه‌هورمون حشرات

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه مراغه

2 استادیار دانشگاه مراغه

10.22055/ppr.2020.15648

چکیده

گیاهان در دفاع از خود در مقابل بندپایان (حشرات و کنه‌ها) ممکن است ترکیباتی را ترشح کنند که سیستم درون­ ریز آنها را مختل کند. اکدیستروئیدهای گیاهی و شبه­ هورمون­ های جوانی از جمله این ترکیبات هستند. گیاه اسفناج به عنوان گیاهی که اکدیستروئیدهای گیاهی را سنتز و ذخیره می­کند و گیاه همیشه­ بهار به عنوان گیاهی که ترکیبات شبه هورمون جوانی را دارد شناسایی شده ­اند. کنه تارتن دولکه­ ای با نام علمی Tetranychus urticae Kochیک آفت پلی ­فاژ در بسیاری از نقاط دنیا است که نسبت به سموم مقاومت پیدا کرده است. از آنجا که شبه‌هورمون‌های حشرات انتخابی عمل می ­کنند و برای محیط زیست سالم هستند بعضی از این ترکیبات می ­توانند با حشره­ کش ­ها رقابت کنند. در این مطالعه، اثر گیاهان اسفناج و همیشه ­بهار روی پارامترهای رشد جمعیت کنه تارتن دولکه ­ای بررسی شد. مطالعات با استفاده از دیسک­ های برگی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی و با 50 تکرار انجام شد. نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت این آفت روی اسفناج و همیشه ­بهار به ترتیب 2188/0 و 0199/0-، نرخ متناهی افزایش جمعیت 244/1 و0980/0، نرخ خالص تولیدمثل52/21 و 74/0 و مدت زمان تکمیل یک نسل 14 و 75/16 روز محاسبه شد. نتیجه تحقیق نشان داد که کنه تارتن به طور منفی تحت تاثیر ترکیبات گیاه همیشه­ بهار قرار گرفت و تنها 10 % از جمعیت آن به مرحله بلوغ رسیدند در حالی که  روی میزبان اسفناج، به راحتی رشد خود را کامل نموده و در مرحله بلوغ نیز عملکرد آنها مشابه میزبان ­های اصلی­ اش بود. گیاه همیشه بهار دارای ترکیبات شبه هورمون جوانی است و این ترکیبات روی خصوصیات زیستی کنه T. urticae اثر منفی دارند. لذا از این ترکیبات می توان در مدیریت کنه تارتن دولکه‌ای استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biological Parameters of Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, on Two Plants with Insect Hormone-Like Compounds

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Chapari 1
  • S. Khodayari 2
1 Former M.Sc. student, University of Maragheh
2 Assistant Professor, University of Maragheh
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Plants produce some compounds for defense against phytophagous insects and mites that may disrupt their endocrine system. Plant phytoecdysteroids and juvenoids are of these compounds that has been isolated and identified from some species. The main function of ecdysteriod is to stimulate development from one molting cycle to the next and compounds like that has been identified in Spinacea oleracea L.. The main function of JH in insect ontogenesis is to inhibit morphogenetic process and compounds like that has been identified in Calendula officinalis L.. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a polyphagous pest worldwide on a variety of host plants which has become resistant to pesticides. Since insect hormone-like compounds in plants, act selectively and are safe for environment they can compete with common pesticides.
Materials and Methods: A study was carried out to investigate the effect of above mentioned plants on biological parameters of T. urticae in the University of Maragheh. The life table parameters of T. urticae were studied on leaf discs under laboratory conditions (RH 65±5%, 25±1ºC and 16:8 h L:D) with 50 replicates. The raw data were analyzed based on age stage two-sex life table theory with TWO SEX-MS Chart software.
Results: The intrinsic rate of increase (r) were 0.2188 and -0.0199 day-1, the finite rate of increase (λ) were 1.244 and 0.0980 day-1, the net reproductive rate (R0) were 21.52 and 0.74 (eggs/individual), the mean generation time (T) were 14 and 16.75 days, and the gross reproduction rate (GRR) were 48.37 and 5.7 (eggs/individual) on Spinacea oleracea and Calendula officinalis, respectively.
Discussion: The results showed that Calendula officinalis affect T. urticae negatively and only 10% of the mite population can mature on this host. Spinacea oleracea had no inhibitory effect on the biology of T. urticae and the performance of this mite on this host was like its performance on its main hosts. Calendula officinalis has juvenoid compounds that have negative effects on biology of T. urticae. So these compounds can be used in the management of T. urtcae.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tetranychus urticae
  • Spinacea
  • Life table
  • Calendula
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