اثرات کشندگی و زیرکشندگی روغن‎‌های معدنی، پالیزین و بوپروفزین روی کفشدوزک‌ شکارگر Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Col.: Coccinellidae)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهش پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، موسسه تحقیقات باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی رامسر

2 استادیار پژوهش بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی ساری

3 محقق بخش کنترل بیولوژیک، موسسه تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی آمل

4 استادیار پژوهش پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه‌گرمسیری، موسسه تحقیقات باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی رامسر

10.22055/ppr.2020.15882

چکیده

کفشدوزک Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant از شکارگران مهم شپشک‌های گیاهی محسوب می شود. در این تحقیق، اثر سه ترکیب در غلظت توصیه شده و نصف این غلظت، در 9 تیمار شامل؛1 و 2-روغن معدنی امولسیون شونده (EC) 5/0 و یک درصد، 3 و 4- روغن امولسیون غلیظ (مایونز) 5/0 و یک درصد، 5 و 6- صابون حشره‌کش پالیزین 25/1 و 5/2 در هزار، 7 و 8- بوپروفزین 25/0 و 5/0 در هزار و 9- آب (شاهد) روی این شکارگر بررسی شد. تیمارها روی مرحله تخم به روش غوطه‌وری و روی لاروهای سن چهارم و حشرات کامل به صورت پاشش مستقیم روی نهال‌های آلوده به شپشک آردآلود بعد از رهاسازی کفشدوزک، اجرا شدند. روغن مایونز (یک درصد) کاهش 4/43 درصدی روی تفریخ تخم تیمار شده در مقایسه با شاهد ایجاد کرد. تیمار بوپروفزین 5/0 در هزار روی لاروهای سن چهارم و کفشدوزک‌های نر و ماده به ترتیب 6/36، 5/35 و 40 درصد تلفات معنی‌دار نسبت به شاهد ایجاد کرد. میانگین طول عمر در ماده‌های تیمار شده با بوپروفزین 5/0 در هزار (9/30 روز) در حدود 8/2 برابر کمتر از شاهد (8/87 روز) و میانگین تعداد تخم (1/26 عدد) در حدود یک چهارم میانگین تعداد تخم در شاهد (114 عدد) بود. بر اساس استاندارد IOBC، روغن مایونز 5/0 درصد (E=24.6) در گروه بی‌خطر (گروه یک)، بوپروفزین 5/0 در هزار (E=84.1) در گروه با خطر متوسط (گروه سه) و بقیه ترکیبات در گروه با خطر جزئی (گروه دو) طبقه‌بندی شدند. ترکیبات مذکور در نصف غلظت توصیه شده نسبت به غلظت توصیه شده اثر سوء کمتری روی ویژگی‌های آزمایش شده داشتند. بنابراین می‌توان از نصف غلظت توصیه شده ترکیبات مورد آزمایش در تلفیق با کفشدوزک C. montrouzieri در برنامه‌های مدیریت کنترل شپشک‌های آردآلود و بالشک در باغ‌های مرکبات بهره برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Lethal and sublethal effects of mineral oils, palizin and buprofezin on predatory ladybeetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Col.: Coccinellidae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Aghajanzadeh 1
  • M. Gholamzadeh Chitgar 2
  • M. Hasanzadeh 3
  • E. Gholamian 4
1 Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Ramsar
2 Research Assistant Professor, Plant Protection Research Department, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Sari
3 Researcher, Department of Biological Control, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Amol
4 Research Assistant Professor, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Ramsar
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Citrus, as a critical horticultural product, has a special place in our country's economy. Meanwhile, scale insects such as Planococcus citri and Pulvinaria aurantii are the most important pests of citrus in northern Iran and cause economic damage. To prevent the damage of these pests, various insecticides are recommended. Due to a waxy layer on their bodies, it is difficult to control them chemically. Excessive use of pesticides and repeated spraying can have adverse effects on non-target organisms. In the present study, the effect of three compounds was conducted on some biological and reproductive characteristics of a coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. Also, these compounds were grouped according to the criteria of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).
Materials and Methods
The effect of three compounds at field recommended concentration and half dosage of them in 9 treatments, including: 1, 2: mineral oils, EC, at two concentrations of 5 ml/L and 10 ml/L, 3, 4: mineral oils mayonnaise, at two concentrations of 5 ml/L and 10 ml/L, 5, 6: insecticidal soap palizin 1.25 and 2.5 ml/L, 7, 8: buprofezin 0.25 and 0.5 ml/L and 9: water (control) were investigated on C. montrouzieri. Treatments were done on eggs via dipping method and on the fourth instar larvae and adults via direct spray on mealybug-infested citrus seedling after releasing the ladybeetle.
Results
Mayonnaise oil (10 ml/L) caused a 43.4% reduction on egg hatching compared with that of control. Buprofezin treatment (0.5 ml/L) with 36.6, 35.5 and 40% mortalities on fourth instar 
larvae, male and female adult respectively, was significantly different compared to the control. In the treated females with buprofezin 0.5 ml/L, mean of longevity and fecundity were 30.9 days and 26.1 eggs compared to the control 87.8 days and 114 eggs, respectively. According to IOBC standard method, mayonnaise (5 ml/L) as harmless (E=24.6, class 1), buprofezin as moderately harmful (E=84.1, class 3), and other compounds as slightly harmful (class 2) were classified. Used compounds at half doses had a low adverse effect on tested parameters compared with field recommended concentration.
Discussion
Many researchers emphasize the harmlessness of oils to pests' natural enemies. Also, the safety of palizin on them has been reported by some researchers. The use of buprofezin in the larval stage reduced the percentage of adult exit from the pupa, and in the maturing stage, reduced the number of ladybeetle eggs compared to other compounds, so its toxicity is observed to this predator. On the other hand, the effectiveness of mineral oils and palizin in reducing the population of citrus scales has been positively evaluated by researchers. Therefore, these compounds can be used as alternatives to chemical pesticides in the integrated management of citrus pest programs. Also, the mentioned compounds had a less adverse effect on the ladybeetle at the half dosage of the recommended concentrations, which can be used in combination with the ladybeetle to pest control.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Citrus
  • Insecticidal soap
  • Predator
  • Scale insects
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