بررسی واکنش مقاومتی برخی ژنوتیپ‌های نخود به بیمارگر برق‏زدگی و تأثیر بیماری بر فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدانی، محتوای پرولین و کربوهیدرات

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

2 استاد دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

3 دانشیار دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

4 دانشیار دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان

5 استاد دانشگاه ارومیه

10.22055/ppr.2020.15937

چکیده

بیماری برق‌زدگی نخود ناشی از .Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل محدودکننده کشت و تولید نخود در بیشتر مناطق دنیا از جمله ایران است. در مطالعه حاضر به منظور شناسایی منابع ژنتیکی مقاومت، واکنش 20 ژنوتیپ نخود به بیمارگر فوق در سه مرحله رشدی گیاهچه‌ای، گلدهی و غلاف‌دهی در شرایط گلخانه ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد که در مرحله غلاف‌دهی ژنوتیپ‌های مقاوم و حساس با دقت و اطمینان بیشتری از یکدیگر متمایز می‌شوند. در این مرحله، نُه ژنوتیپ در مقابل بیمارگر برق‌زدگی مقاومت بالائی نشان دادند. صفات فیزیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی احتمالی درگیر در مقاومت، شامل میزان کلروفیل، پرولین، پروتئین، قند محلول، کاتالاز، پراکسیداز و پلی فنل اکسیداز اندازه‌گیری شد. تجزیه واریانس صفات مورد مطالعه نشان داد که ژنوتیپ‌های نخود از نظر صفات کلروفیل a و کلروفیل کل اختلاف معنی‌داری با یکدیگر دارند. صفات بیوشیمیایی و فیزیولوژیکی مانند میزان فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز و پراکسیداز، پروتئین، پرولین و قند محلول تحت تأثیر تنش بیماری قرار گرفت، اما اثر متقابل تنش و ژنوتیپ فقط برای سطح کاتالاز معنی‌دار شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating resistance to Ascochyta blight in some chickpea genotypes and its impact on antioxidant enzymes activities, containing of Proline and carbohydrate

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Hasanian 1
  • O. Sofalian 2
  • N. Zare 3
  • A. Tarinejad 4
  • M . Davari 3
  • A. Pirzad 5
1 PhD Student, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
2 Professor,, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
3 Associate professor, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili,
4 Associate Professor, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani,University
5 Professor, Urmia university
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
The Fungus causing Ascochyta blight is one of the most important biological factors limiting chickpea cultivation and production in most parts of the world, including Iran.
Materials and Methods
The present study was conducted to evaluating genetic sources of resistance of 20 chickpea genotypes in three seedling, Flowering, and podding stages in greenhouse conditions at University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. Disease damage was recorded using a 9-degree scale after observing complete death in the sensitive control genotype. Analysis of variance of the studied traits of chickpea genotypes was conducted via factorial experiment in a completely randomized design at two levels for factor A (disease-free and disease-contaminated conditions) and 18 levels (genotypes) for factor B (Given that the 13 and 15 genotypes were lost due to high susceptibility to disease in the first stage of growth, Samples were taken from 18 genotypes). Kolmogorov-Smirnov test used to evaluate the normality of data distribution.
Results
The results showed that the resistant and susceptible genotypes were more accurately distinguished from each other in the podding stage. At this stage, 9 genotypes with a degree of damage 1, 2, and 3 (less than five) showed high resistance to the causative agent of Ascochyta blight. Physiological and biochemical traits involved in disease resistance were measured. The results showed that all traits except chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and polyphenol oxidase had significant differences at 1% probability level in terms of disease stress. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and polyphenol oxidase traits were significantly different at 5% probability level. Genotypes were significantly different in terms of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll traits. In interaction of disease × genotype, only catalase was significantly different among all studied traits. The amounts of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase have been affected by the disease and their rates increased. The highest coefficient of variation for Content soluble protein was 74.1 and the lowest for soluble sugar was 16.5. Significant interaction of genotype in stress showed that the trend of genotypes for traits under normal and stress conditions was not the same and superior genotypes under normal conditions were not necessarily recommended for disease stress conditions.
Discussion
A positive relationship between polyphenol oxidase level and pathogen resistance was observed in the plants. The amount of damage that stress inflicts on crops leads to further efforts to understand the effects of disease on different plant mechanisms and requires understanding of appropriate adaptive responses to this environmental factor.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ascochyta blight
  • Biochemical traits
  • Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum)
  • Disease Intensity
  • Resistant and sensitive genotype
Abdalla, A.E., and Roozen, J.P. 1999. Effect of plant extracts on the oxidative stability ofsunflower oil and emulsion. Food Chemistry, 64: 323-329.
Ahmad, S., Khan, M.A., Sahi, S.T., and Ahmad, R. 2013. Evaluation of chickpea germ plasm against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Lab. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23 (2): 440-443.
Almagro, L., Gómez Ros, L.V., Belchi-Navarro, S., Bru, R., Ros Barceló, A., and Pedreño, M.A. 2009. Class III peroxidases in plant defence reactions. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60: 377-390.
Anonymous, 2000. Germplasm program. Annual Report for 1999. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.
Bagheri, A., Ganjali, A., and Parsa, M. 1997. Chickpea planting and improvement. press of Mashhad Academic Jihad. Iran. First edition. p. 444.
Basandrai, A.K., Basandrai, D., Pande, S., Sharma, M., Thakur, S.K., and Thakur, H.L. 2007. Development of Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) in chickpea as affected by host resistance and plant age. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 119: 77-86.
Bates, L., Waldren, R., and Teare, I. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and soil, 39 (1): 205-207.
Balakina, M.A., Smolyakova, O.B., and Tokman, M.D. 2003. Geometro-optical code for ray tracing in warm plasmas. In Litvak, A.G. (Eds.). Strong Microwaves in Plasmas, Nizhny Novgorod. Vol. 1. p. 417.
Bolen, D.W., and Baskakov, I.V. 2001. The osmophobic effect: natural selection of a thermodynamic force in protein folding. Journal of Molecular Biology, 310 (5): 955-963.
Bradford, M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Annual of Biochemistry, 72: 248-254.
Butler, E.J. 1918. Fungi and Disease in Plants. Thaker, Sprink and Co., Calcutta, India.
Cakmac, I., and Kirikby, E. 2008. Role of magnesium in carbon partitioning and alleviating photo oxidative damage. Physiologia Plantarum, 133: 692-704.
Chance, B., and Maehly, A.C. 1955. Assay of catalases and peroxidases. Methods in Enzymology, 11: 764-755.
Chongo, G., and Gossen, B.D. 2001. Effect of plant age on resistance to Ascochyta rabiei in chickpea. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 23: 358-363.
Dey, S.K., and Singh, G. 1993. Resistance to Ascochyta blight in chickpea- Genetic basis. Euphytica, 68: 147-153.
Elliott, V., Taylor, P., and Ford, R. 2013. Changes in foliar host reaction to Ascochyta Rabiei with plant maturity. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5 (7): 29-35.
FAO. 2014. FAOSTAT database results from FAO website. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Heidarvand, L., and Maali amiri, R. 2010. What happens in plant molecular responses to cold stress? Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 32: 419-431.
Irigoyen, J.J., Emerich, D.W., and Sanchez-Diaz, M. 1992. Water stress induced changes in concentrations of proline and total soluble sugars in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Plants. Plant Physiology, 84: 55-60.
Janda, T., Kosa, EL., Szalai, G., and Paldi, E. 2005. Investion of antioxidant activity of maizeduring low temperature stress. Journal of Plant Physiology, 49: 53-54.
Jayakumar, P.. Gossen, B.D., Gan, Y.T., Warkentin, T.D., and Banniza, S. 2005. Ascochyta blight of chickpea: infection and host resistance mechanisms. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 27: 499-509.
Kar, M., and Mishra, D. 1976. Catalase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase activities during rice leaf senescence. Plant Physiology, 57: 315-319.       
Kavousi, H.R., Marashi, H., Mozafari, J., and Bagheri, A.R. 2009. Expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in chickpea defense against race 3 of Ascochyta rabiei. Plant Pathology Journal, 8: 127-132.
Koyro, H.W. 2006. Effect of salinity on growth, photosynthesis, water relations and solute composition of the potential cash crop halophyte Plantago coronopus (L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 56: 136-146.
Kimurto, P.K., Towetti, B.K., Mulwa, R.S., Njogui, N., Jeptanui, L., Gangarao, N.V.P.R.R., Silim, S., Kaloki, P., Korir, P., and Macharia, J.K. 2013. Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei) disease in the dry highlands of Kenya. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 52 (1): 212-221.
Lichtenthaler, H.K. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. In Colowick, S.P., & Kaplan, N.O. (Eds). Methods in enzymology. Elsevier. Vol. 148, pp: 350-382.
Magbanua, Z.V., Moraes, C.M.D., Brooks, T.D., Williams, W.P., and Luthe, D.S. 2007. Is catalase activity one of the factors associated with maize resistance to Aspergillus flavus? Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 20 (6): 697-706.
Malhotra, R.S., Baum, M., Udupa, S.M., Bayaa, B., Kabbabe, S., and Khalaf. G. 2003. Ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea: present status and future prospects. Proceeding of International Chickpea Congress: Chickpea Research for Millenium. Raipur, India.
Matysik, J., Bhalu, A.B., and Mohnty, P. 2002. Molecular mechanisms of quenching of reactive oxygen species by proline under stress in plants. Current Science, 82: 525-532.
McDonald. M.B. 1999. Seed deterioration: physiology, repair, and assessment. Seed Science and Technology, 27 (11): 177-237.
Miri, H.R. 2009. Physiology of Plant Stresses. Islamic Azad University of Kermanshah Branch. P. 472.
Pande, S., Sharma, M., Gaur, P.M., Tripathi, S., Kaur, L., Basandrai, A., Khan, T., Gowda, C.L.L., and Siddique, K.H.M. 2011. Development of screening techniques and identification of new sources of resistance to Ascochyta blight disease of chickpea. Australasian Plant Pathology, 40: 149-156.
Pande, S., Sharma, M., Gaur, P.M., Basandrai, A.K., Kaur, L., Hooda, K.S., Basandrai, D., Kiran, B.T., Jain, S.K., and Rathore, A. 2013. Biplot analysis of genotype×environment interactions and identification of stable sources of resistance to Ascochyta blight in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Australasian Plant Pathology, 42: 561-571.
Peever, T.L., Chen, W., Abdo, Z., and Kaiser, W.J. 2012. Genetics of virulence in Ascochyta rabiei. Plant Pathology, 61: 754-760.
Rao, L.S., Ran, U.P., Deshmukh, P.S., Kumar, P.A., and Panguluri, S.K. 2007. RAPD and ISSR fingerprinting in cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and its wild progenitor Cicer reticulatum Ladizinsky. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 54.
Reddy, M.V., and Singh, K.B. 1984. Evaluation of a world collection of chickpea germplasm accessions for resistance to Ascochyta blight. Plant Disease, 68: 900-901.
Santra, D.K., Tekeoglu, M., Ratnaparkhe, M., Kaiser, W.J, and Muehlbauer, F.J. 2000. Identification and mapping of QTLs conferring resistance to Ascochyta blight in chickpea. Crop Science, 40: 1606-1612.
Saxena, M.C. 1993. The challenge of developing biotic and abiotic stress resistance in cool-season food legumes. P. 3-14. In Singh, K.B., & Saxena, M.C. (Eds.). Breeding for Stress Tolerance in Cool-Season Food Legumes. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK.
Schutz, H., and Fangmier, E. 2001. Growth and yield responses of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to elevated CO2 and water limitation. Environmental Pollution, 114: 187-194.
Sharma, M., Pande, S., and Rathore, A. 2010. Effect of growth stages of chickpea on the genetic resistance of Ascochyta blight. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 128: 325-331.
Shokohifar, F., Bagheri, A.R., and Fallahati Rastegar, M. 2006. Identification of resistant chickpea lines against pathotypes causing Ascochyta blight disease in Iran. Iranian Journal of Biology, 19: 29-42.
Singh, K.B., and Saxena, N.P. 1993. Breeding for stress tolerance in cool-season food legumes. Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Singh, K.B., and Reddy, M.V. 1993. Resistance to six races of Ascochyta rabiei in the world germplasm collection of chickpea. Crop Science, 33: 186-189.
Smeekens. S. 2000. Sugar-induced signal transduction in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 51: 49-81.
Staden, J., Hare, P.D., and Cress, W.A. 1999. Proline synthesis and degradation: a model system for elucidating stress-related signal transduction. Journal of Experimental Botany, 50 (333): 413-434.
Tale Ahmad, S., and Haddad, R. 2010. Effect of silicone on antioxidant activity and content of osmotic regulators in two bread wheat genotypes under drought stress conditions. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 2 (2-26): 207-225.
Toker, C. 2005. Preliminary screening and selection for cold tolerance in annual wild Cicer species. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 52: 1-5.
Trapero-Casas, A., and Kaiser, W.J. 1992. Influence of temperature, wetness period, plant age and inoculum concentration on infection and development of Ascochyta blight. Phytopathology, 82: 589-596.
Udupa, S.M., and Weigand, F. 1997. Pathotyping of Ascochyta rabiei isolates of Syria. p. 39-48. In: Udupa. S.M.. and Wigand. F. (ed.). DNA markers and breeding for resistance to Ascochyta blight in chickpea. Proceedings of the symposium on application of DNA fingerprinting for crop improvement: marker assisted selection of chickpea for sustainable agriculture in the dry areas. 11-12 April 1994, Aleppo, Syria, ICARDA.
Udupa, S.M., Weigand, F., Saxena, M.C., and Kahl, G. 1998. Genotyping with RAPD and microsatellite markers resolves pathotype diversity in the Ascochyta blight pathogen of chickpea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 97: 299-307.
Warkentin, T.D., Banniza, S., and Vandenberg, A. 2005. CDC Frontier kabuli chickpea. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 85: 909-910.
Xue, G., Lynne McIntyre, C., Glassop, D., and Shorter, R. 2008. Use of expression analysis to dissect alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in wheat leaves during drought stress. Plant Molecular Biology, 67: 197-214.
Yasuda, M., Ishikawa, A., Jikumaru, Y., Seki, M., Umezawa, T., Asami, T.m., Maruyama-Nakashita, A., Kudo, T., Shinozaki, K., and Yoshida, S. 2008. Antagonistic interaction between systemic acquired resistance and the abscisic acid-mediated abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 20: 1678-1692.
Yang, J., Zhang, J., Wang, Z., Liu, L., and Zhu, Q. 2003. Post anthesis water deficits enhance grain fillling in tuo-line hybrid rice. Crop Science, 43: 2099-2108.
Yang, X., Chen, X., Ge, Q., Li, Tong, Y., Zhang, A., Li, Z., Kuang, T., and Lu, C. 2006. Tolerance of photosynthesis to photoinhibition, high temperature and drought stress in flag leaves of wheat: a comparison between a hybridization line and its parents grown under field conditions. Plant Science, 171: 389-397.
Yong, Z., Hao-Ru, T., and Ya, L. 2008. Variation in antioxidant enzyme activites of two strawbreey cultivars with short-term low temperature stress. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4: 456-462.