تأثیر نمک‌های سیلیسیوم بر تغییرات فیزیولوژیک باقلای آلوده به Rhizoctonia solani

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه شیراز

2 استاد دانشگاه شیراز

3 دانشجوی دکتری بیماریشناسی گیاهی دانشگاه شیراز

10.22055/ppr.2020.16047

چکیده

سیلیسیوم دومین عنصر رایج در خاک است که اثرات مفیدی به صورت مستقیم یا غیرمستقیم در افزایش تحمل به تنش­ های زنده و غیرزنده در گیاهان دارد. در این مطالعه، فعالیت درون زیوه­ ای سیلیکات سدیم و پتاسیم در مهار Rhizoctonia solani در گیاه باقلا مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب یک طرح کاملاً تصادفی و اعمال سه تیمار شاهد، دریافت نمک قبل و بعد از مایه ­زنی، در سه تکرار در گلخانه اجرا شد. محتوای کاتالاز، پراکسیداز، پلی­فنول اکسیداز، پرولین، پروتئین کلوکربوهیدارت گیاه، همچنین اسیدیته (pH) و هدایت الکتریکی خاک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج آزمایش ­ها نشان داد که نمک­ های سیلیسیوم با افزایش آنزیم‌های کاتالاز، پراکسیداز، پلی­فنول اکسیداز و پروتئین کل باعث افزایش معنی ­دار تحمل باقلا نسبت به R. solan می ­شود و برعکس میزان پرولین کاهش می ­یابد. کاربرد نمک‌های سیلیکاتی موجب کاهش بیماری از طریق کاهش درصد استقرار در ریشه، کاهش مرگ و میر گیاهان و کاهش پوسیدگی ریشه­ ی گیاه باقلا نسبت به شاهد شد. هیچ­کدام از این نمک ­ها تأثیری روی میزان کربوهیدرات گیاه، pH و هدایت الکتریکی خاک نداشتند. با توجه به این شواهد می­ توان استنباط کرد که نقش نمک ­های سیلیسیوم در افزایش تحمل به بیماری در باقلا به دلیل افزایش فعالیت آنزیم­ های ضد­اکسایش بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of silicon salts on physiological changes in broad bean infected by Rhizoctonia solani

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Mohammadi 1
  • R. Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa 2
  • F. Salmaninezhad 3
1 M.Sc. graduate of, Shiraz University
2 Professor, Shiraz University
3 Ph.D. candidate of Plant Pathology, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Silicon is the most common soil element which has beneficial effects to enhance the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The addition of silicon to plant nutrient solution decreases sodium concentration, increases plant growth, has positive effects on plant reproduction, and increases mechanical resistance.  Also, silicon affects absorption and translocation of several macro- as well as micronutrient elements and imposes the formation of precipitates under cuticle reduces plant transpiration, and causes resistance to stresses such as side effects of excessive phosphorus and heavy metals (high concentration of manganese and aluminum) or salinity. Furthermore, silicon salts can significantly reduce the diseases in broad bean by reducing the percentage of root colonization and plant death, as well as decreasing root rot compared to controls. Silicon salts such as sodium and potassium silicate cause significant reduction in growth, asexual organ reproduction, and dry weight of hyphae, and prevent cysts' germination in some plant pathogens such as Phytophthora species. The application of silicon salts before and after inoculation of sterilized soil with Phytophthora pistaciae significantly reduces the disease by reducing the percentage of colonized roots and the broad bean's mortality. In this study, in vivo activities of sodium and potassium silicate in controlling Rhizoctonia solani were evaluated.
Material and Methods
Studying the effect of sodium silicate (0.5 mM) and potassium silicate (2 mM) to increase the resistance of broad bean against R. solani a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with salt treatments before and after inoculation was conducted. The level of catalase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, proline, total protein, and carbohydrates in plants, as well as pH and the electrical conductivity of soil were examined.
Results
The results showed that silicon salts might enhance broad bean resistance to R. solani by increasing the level of catalase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and total protein and decreasing proline. None of the salts had any effects on the level of the plants' carbohydrate content and pH, and the electrical conductivity of soil. As a result, controlling the pathogen is not directly affected by soil pH.
Discussion
Due to the results, it can be concluded that the role of silicon salts in promoting broad been tolerance could be due to increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes which in turn reduced the oxidative damages of reactive oxygen species produced under disease stress. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • antioxidant activity
  • Biotic stress
  • Root pathogen
  • Silicates
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