تأثیر عصاره های جلبک دریایی (Ascophyllum nodosum) و تلخ بیان (Sophora alopecuroides) روی نماتد ریشه گرهی گوجه فرنگی (Meloidogyne incognita)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشیار دانشگاه گیلان

3 استادیار دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

نماتدهای ریشه گرهی (.Meloidogyne spp) از جمله عوامل بیماری زای بسیار مهمی هستند که خسارت زیادی به محصولات کشاورزی وارد می‌سازند. روش‌های متعددی مانند تناوب زراعی، ارقام مقاوم و ترکیبات شیمیایی برای کنترل آن‌ها به کار گرفته شده است. هزینه بالا و مشکلات زیست محیطی ترکیبات شیمیایی، توجه محققان را به استفاده از روش‌های غیرشیمیایی هم‌چون استفاده از گیاهان و عصاره‌های گیاهی برای مدیریت این نماتدها معطوف کرده است. هدف از انجام این مطالعه، بررسی اثرات بازدارندگی عصاره‌های جلبک‌دریایی (Ascophyllum nodosum) و تلخ‌بیان (Sophora alopecuroides) روی فعالیت نماتد ریشه گرهی (Meloidogyne incognita) شامل تفریخ تخم و مرگ و میر لارو سن دوم نماتد در شرایط آزمایشگاه و گلخانه بود. پس از انجام نمونه‌برداری، خصوصیات ریخت‌شناسی نماتدهای جداسازی شده بررسی و تعیین گونه صورت گرفت. از سه غلظت مختلف هر عصاره در سه تکرار در آزمایشگاه استفاده شد. میزان تفریخ تخم و مرگ و میر لارو سن دوم نماتد ریشه گرهی (M. incognita) پس از 24، 48 و 72 ساعت در شرایط آزمایشگاهی ارزیابی شد. در آزمون گلخانه‌ای، دو ماه پس از مایه زنی، برخی صفات رشدی گیاه شامل (وزن تر اندام هوایی، وزن تر ریشه و طول ساقه) و صفات مربوط به آلودگی نماتد (تعداد گال، توده تخم و فاکتورتولیدمثل) اندازه‌گیری شد. مراحل آزمون دو بار تکرار شد و از میانگین داده‌ها برای تجزیه و تحلیل آماری استفاده گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل با استفاده از نرم افزار SAS و مقایسه میانگین تیمارها با آزمون توکی انجام گرفت. طبق نتایج آزمایشگاهی، میزان بازدارندگی از تفریخ تخم و مرگ و میر لاروهای سن دوم، با غلظت عصاره‌ها رابطه مستقیم داشت. بیشترین درصد مرگ و میر لارو و تفریخ تخم، مربوط به عصاره جلبک‌دریایی با غلظت چهار در هزار و عصاره تلخ‌بیان با غلظت یک و نیم در هزار بود. در نتایج گلخانه‌ای، متوسط میزان مرگ و میر لارو سن دوم نماتد در عصاره جلبک‌دریایی، تلخ‌بیان و نماتدکش کادوزافوس به ترتیب 66/80، 35/81 و 85/31 درصد بود. افزودن عصاره‌های گیاهی باعث کاهش تولیدمثل نماتد ریشه گرهی در گیاهان گوجه‌فرنگی آلوده گردید. بیشترین شاخص‌های رشدی گیاه بدون نماتد زمانی مشاهده شد که عصاره جلبک‌دریایی در اختیار گیاه قرار گرفت. در گیاهان گوجه‌فرنگی آلوده به نماتد، تمام تیمارهای اعمال شده به خاک گلدان باعث افزایش معنی‌دار وزن تر اندام هوایی شدند. نتایج این مطالعه نشان‌دهنده اثر مثبت تیمارهای مورد مطالعه شامل عصاره­ های جلبک‌دریایی و تلخ‌بیان و نویدبخش استفاده از آنها برای کنترل نماتد ریشه گرهی گوجه فرنگی بود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) and Pagoda tree (Sophora alopecuroides) extracts on tomato root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

نویسندگان [English]

  • P. Alizadeh 1
  • S. Jamali 2
  • S. Mousanejad 3
1 M.Sc. student, University of Guilan
2 Associate Professor, University of Guilan
3 Assistant Professor, University of Guilan
چکیده [English]

Background and Objective
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most important pathogens which cause great damage to the agricultural products. However, only a few methods such as crop rotation, resistant cultivars, and chemical compounds were approved for their control so far. Considering their environmental hazards and the relatively high price of chemical compounds, using non-chemical methods such as the application of plants and plant extracts for the nematode management increased. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), and pagoda tree (Sophora alopecuroides) extracts on the activity of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), including eggs hatching inhibition and second-stage juveniles (J2) mortality through the laboratory and greenhouse conditions.
Materials and Methods
After the sampling, the morphological properties of isolated nematodes were characterized and the species determined. Three different concentrations of each extract were used in three replications in laboratory tests. Egg hatching and second juvenile mortality (M. incognita) were evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 hours. In the greenhouse tests, two months after the inoculation, some plant growth traits (fresh shoot weight, fresh root weight, stem length) and nematode-related characteristics (number of galls, egg mass, and reproduction factor) were measured. The experiments were repeated twice, and the mean of two-step data was used for the statistical analysis. The analysis was performed using SAS software, and the comparison of means was achieved by the Tukey test.
Results
The laboratory results showed that the rate of egg hatching inhibition and mortality of J2 were directly related to the concentrations of applied extracts. Moreover, the results indicated that there was a significant difference among the treatments. The highest assessed percentage of larval mortality and hatching inhibition was observed in the seaweed extract application with 4/1000 concentration and pagoda tree extract with 1.5/1000 concentration, respectively. According to greenhouse results, the mean mortality of nematodes (J2) in seaweed, pagoda tree, and cadusafos nematicide was 66.80%, 35.81%, and 85.31%, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of plant extracts reduced the reproduction of root-knot nematodes in the infected tomato plants. The highest growth factors were observed on the nematode-free plant when seaweed extract was inoculated to the plant. In the nematode-infected tomato plants, all treatments which were applied to potting soil caused a significant increase in fresh shoot weight.
Discussion
The results indicated the positive effects of the studied treatments of Seaweed and Pagoda tree extracts and are promising for using plant extracts to control tomato root-knot nematode in greenhouses, the point that can be considered in the management of this nematode in greenhouse crops and combination with other control methods.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Extracts
  • Management
  • Root-knot nematode
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