کاربرد همزمان زنبور پارازیتوئید Lysiphlebus fabarum و حشره‌کش پریمیکارب، به منظور کنترل شته جالیز Aphis gossypii در شرایط گلخانه‌ای

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 دانش‌آموخته دکتری دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 دانشیار دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

4 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی هرمزگان

چکیده

شته جالیز یا شته پنبه، Aphis gossypii Glover (Hem.: Aphididae)، یکی از آفات مهم خیار بوده و استفاده از حشره‌کش‌ها یکی از روش های متداول کنترل این آفت محسوب می ­شود. در پژوهش حاضر امکان استفاده همزمان از زنبور پارازیتوئید LysiphlebusfabarumMarshall (Hym.: Braconidae) و غلظت کاهش یافتۀ حشره‌کش‌ پریمیکارب، برای کنترل این شته مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. ابتدا آزمون زیست ­سنجی روی پورۀ سن سوم شته برای تعیین غلظت‌های کشندۀ پریمیکارب انجام گرفت، سپس اثر پایداری غلظت LC50 این ترکیب بر زنده ­مانی حشرات کامل زنبور تعیین شد. در ادامه با بکارگیری غلظت LC50 پریمیکارب در تلفیق با رهاسازی زنبور (40 و یا 60 عدد زنبور روی هر بوته، هر سه روز یک ­بار) روند تغییرات جمعیت شته روی گیاهان خیار به مدت یک ماه در گلخانه­ بررسی شد. طبق نتایج بدست آمده، میزان LC50 پریمیکارب، 6/212 (µg/L) تعیین شد و با توجه به میزان پایداری پریمیکارب، امکان رهاسازی زنبور، سه روز بعد از سم پاشی ممکن بود. مقایسۀ نتایج کاربرد همزمان زنبور و غلظت LC50 پریمیکارب در تیمارهای مختلف نشان داد که کاربرد تراکم 60 زنبور، تأثیر بیشتری در کاهش جمعیت شته نداشته و رهاسازی 40 زنبور در هر یک از دوره‌های رهاسازی، برای کنترل شته کافی و مناسب می باشد. مطابق با نتایج بدست آمده، پس از اولین سم پاشی و کاهش قابل توجه جمعیت شته، زنبور قادر بود در ادامه مانع رشد جمعیت شته شود و نیازی به تکرار سم پاشی وجود نداشت، اما در صورت نیاز، همزمان با ادامۀ کاربرد زنبور، می‌توان هر 15 روز نسبت به تکرار سم‌پاشی با غلظت LC50 پریمیکارب اقدام نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The simultaneous use of a parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum and pirimicarb insecticide to control Aphis gossypii, in greenhouse conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Rasekh 1
  • A. Almasi 2
  • M. Esfandiari 3
  • M. Ziaee 3
  • M. Askari Seyahooei 4
1 Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
2 Graduated Ph.D. student, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
3 Associate Professor, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
4 Assistant Professor, Hormozgan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
The melon or cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is hazardous to many agricultural crops. Melon aphid is a highly polyphagous pest, feeding on more than 320 plant species including cucumber. Melon aphids physically damage plants by directly sucking their phloem sap, resulting in premature leaf drop, wilting, and desiccation of host plants. Application of insecticides is usually considered as the most common method to control this pest. As a result of the widespread use of these chemical compounds, this pest has become resistant against several classes of synthetic insecticides. Therefore, in this study, sub-lethal concentrations of pirimicarb, and a parasitoid wasp, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Braconidae: Aphidiinae) were simultaneously used to control melon aphid on cucumber, as part of a comprehensive study for the integrated pest management.
Materials and Methods
In this research, first, bioassay of pirimicarb was performed with third instar of A. gossypii to calculate lethal concentrations of pirimicarb and then, another experiment was conducted to determine stability of pirimicarb, and also its effects on survival of a parasitoid wasp adult, L. fabarum. In the following, the effects of simultaneous releasing of L. fabarum with applying sub-lethal concentration (LC50) of pirimicarb on cucumber were investigated by determining population dynamics A. gossypii, every 5 days. In the first treatment, as a control treatment; the plants were sprayed with the recommended field concentration, at the beginning of the experiment, without releasing of the parasitoid wasp. In the second and third treatments, 40 male and female parasitoid wasps were released every 3 days on each plant. In the fourth and fifth treatments, 60 male and female parasitoid wasps were released. In all the last four treatments, at the beginning of the experiment, and in the third and fifth treatments on the 15th day, the plants were sprayed with LC50 of pirimicarb. After 30 days, the experiment was ended and the total number of alive aphids and total number of the mummified aphids were counted on each plant.
 
Results
Mean lethal concentration (LC50) of pirimicarb was equal to 212.6 µg/L for the third nymphal instar and due to low stability of this concentration of pirimicarb; it was possible to release the wasps 3 days after spraying. The results of releasing different densities of wasp showed that higher density of wasps (60 wasps per release) did not have a highly significant effect, and low density of wasps (40 wasps) was able to control aphids. After a significant reduction in aphid population due to pesticide use, the parasitoid wasp was able to prevent growth of aphid population, but if necessary, spraying can be repeated by sub-lethal concentration (LC50)of the pirimicarb, after 15 days.
Discussion
Findings of the present study suggested that lethal concentration (LC50) of pirimicarb can be applied as a suitable insecticide, simultaneously with L. fabarum, for the integrated pest management of melon aphids.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aphidiinae
  • Bioassay
  • Cotton aphids
  • Cucumber
  • Melon aphid
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