مهار زیستی بیماری پژمردگی فوزاریومی کنجد در استان خراسان رضوی باTrichoderma harzianum در شرایط آزمایشگاه وگلخانه

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار ،گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استاد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

کنجد یکی از گیاهان زراعی با ارزش غذایی فراوان است که از حمله‌ی میکروارگانیسم‌های بیمارگر از جمله قارچ‌ها، مصون نیست. ایجاد بیماری‌هایی مانند پژمردگی آوندی در این گیاه، باعث کاهش راندمان محصول می‌گردد. تعداد 17 جدایه مربوط به Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. sesami از گیاهان کنجد مشکوک به بیماری در مناطق مختلف استان خراسان رضوی جداسازی شدند. برای بررسی امکان مهار زیستی از قارچ آنتاگونیست Trichoderma harzianum جدایه‌ی TR5 استفاده گردید. در آزمون بیماری‌زایی تمام جدایه‌های F. oxysporum f. sp. sesami بیماری‏‌زا بوده و از این نظر با هم دارای اختلاف معنی‌داری در سطح 5 درصد نشان دادند که بیش‌ترین شدت بیماری‌زایی مربوط به جدایه‌های BA15 و BA16 هر دو با 5/87 درصد پژمردگی و کم‌ترین شدت بیماری‌زایی مربوط به جدایه‌های AN7 و KA33 هر دو با 5/12 درصد پژمردگی گیاه کنجد بود. در آزمون بررسی آنتاگونیستی در شرایط آزمایشگاهی از روش کشت متقابل بیمارگر با آنتاگونیست استفاده گردید که بیش‌ترین میزان بازدارندگی از رشد ناشی از اثر آنتاگونیستی T. harzianum مربوط به جدایه‌ی BA1 با 45/88 درصد و کم‌ترین میزان بازدارندگی از رشد ناشی از تقابل با آنتاگونیست مذکور مربوط به جدایه‌ی AN2 با 33/71 درصد بود. هم‌چنین در شرایط گلخانه‌ای میزان کاهش شدت علائم بیماری در بین جدایه‌های مورد آزمایش، متفاوت بوده و اختلاف معنی‏داری در سطح 5 درصد نشان دادند. بیش‌ترین تأثیر آنتاگونیستی T. harzianum روی جدایه‌های BA1، AN7 و K33 با کاهش شدت بیماری به میزان 100 درصد و کم‌ترین تأثیر مربوط به جدایه‌ی AN2 با کاهش شدت بیماری به میزان 54/54 درصد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biological control of sesame Fusarium wilt using Trichoderma harzianum in Khorasan Razavi province under in vitro and in vivo conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Nazvar 1
  • M. Mamarabadi 2
  • P. Taheri 3
1 M.Sc. student of Agricultural Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Mashhad. Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Mashhad. Iran
3 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Mashhad. Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Sesame is one of the most valuable crops in human nutrition and is cultivated in different regions of Iran, including Khorasan Razavi province. In this plant, various pathogens cause vascular wilt and reduce crop yield. This study aimed to detect the fungal pathogens causing vascular wilt in sesame and control its diseases using the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum under in vitro and in vivo conditions.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-one suspected sesame samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory to be studied using valid morphological identification keys. Media such as PDA, WA, and CLA were used for the isolation, purification, and identification of the fungal samples isolated from the infected sesame plants, respectively. Pathogenicity test was conducted by the root inoculation of sesame plants grown under greenhouse conditions. The biocontrol activity of Trichoderma harzianum (Isolate TR5) isolated from the rhizosphere of sesame roots was evaluated against the pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.  sesami under in vitro (dual culture) and greenhouse conditions by the root inoculation of the plants.
Results
According to the result, 17 isolates were related to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.  sesami. The pathogenicity test was performed on the sesame plants at the 5-8-leaf stage. All F. oxysporum f. sp.  sesami isolates were pathogenic as they revealed a significant difference at p=0.05. The highest level of pathogenicity was noticed for the isolates BA15 and BA16, both with 87.5% wilting, and the lowest pathogenicity was observed in the isolates AN7 and KA33, both with 12.5% wilting on the sesame plants. Regarding the antagonistic properties, the highest inhibition rate in dual culture with T. harzianum was observed for the BA1 isolate with 88.45% mycelial inhibition, while the lowest inhibition rate during interaction with the antagonist was exhibited in the AN2 isolate with 71.33% mycelial inhibition.
Moreover, the disease severity reduction rates were different among all isolates of the pathogen tested under greenhouse conditions, and a significant difference was observed at p= 0.05. The highest antagonistic activity of T. harzianum was observed in the BA1, AN7, and K33 isolates with 100% disease severity reduction; however, the lowest activity was related to the AN2 isolate with 54. 54% reduction.
Discussion
The present study indicates that the TR5 isolate belonging to T. harzianum has a high biocontrol potential for controlling vascular wilt on the sesame plants. Consistent with this finding, previous studies have also reported the potentials of Trichoderma spp. for controlling Fusarium wilt in tomatoes, cucumbers, and beans.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • vascular wilt
  • Sesame
  • Biological control
  • Trichoderma harzianum
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