اثر گیاهان میزبان بر واکنش تابعی کفشدوزک کنه خوار Stethorus gilvifrons روی کنه Tetranychus turkestani

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی -انگلیسی


1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد حشره شناسی کشاورزی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 پژوهشگر حشره‏ شناسی، آزمایشگاه ملی کنترل بیولوژیک، سازمان تحقیقات کشاورزی، بخش کشاورزی امریکا، استونویل، MS 38776، امریکا


کنه تارتن توت فرنگی Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov and Nikolski یکی از مهم‌ترین آفات گیاهان زراعی و گلخانه‌ای در خوزستان است. هدف این مطالعه بررسی واکنش تابعی کفشدوزک Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant روی تراکم‌های مختلف کنه T. turkestani روی سه نوع لوبیا: لوبیا چشم بلبلی(Vigna unguiculata L.) ، لوبیا سفید(Phaseolus lunatus L.)  و لوبیا قرمز (Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.) در دمای2 ± 30 درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی10 ± 60 درصد و دوره روشنایی: تاریکی 8:16 ساعت بود. هر کفشدوزک بالغ به مدت 24 ساعت بر روی برگ‌های هر کدام از میزبان‌های گیاهی مذکور حامل تراکم‌هایی از 4، 8، 12، 24، 48 و 96 کنه بالغ T. turkestani روی دیسک برگی در یک پتری دیش با قطر 9 سانتی‌متر نگهداری شد. تجزیه و تحلیل رگرسیونی لوجستیک نشان داد نوع واکنش تابعی روی لوبیا چشم بلبلی، لوبیا سفید و لوبیا قرمز به ترتیب نوع سوم ، دوم و دوم بود. بیش‌ترین نرخ حمله (1219/0) و کوتاه‌ترین زما ن دست‌یابی (2301/0) به ترتیب روی لوبیا سفید و لوبیا قرمز ثبت شد. بیش‌ترین نرخ شکارگری (T/Th) روی گیاهان مذکور 74/72، 42/60 و 30/104 کنه در روز بود. این مطالعه آزمایشگاهی پیشنهاد می‌کند که خصوصیات گیاه میزبان بر توانایی کفشدوزک S. gilvifrons جهت واکنش به تغییر در تراکم کنه T. turkestani اثر می‌گذارد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of host plants on the functional response of the acarophagous ladybird beetle, Stethorus gilvifrons to Tetranychus turkestani

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Bazazzadeh 1
  • P. shishehbor 2
  • M. Esfandiari 3
  • E. W. Riddick 4
1 M.Sc. Graduate student of Agricultural Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Research Entomologist, National Biological Control Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
چکیده [English]

The strawberry spider mite, Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov and Nikolski, is an important pest of various field and glasshouse crops in Iran. This study aimed to determine the functional response of adult females of Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant to different densities of T. turkestani on three fabaceous host plant species: cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), white bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), and red bean (Phaseolus calcaratus Roxb.) at 30±2 °C, 60±10 % RH, and a photoperiod of 16L: 8D. Beetles were starved for 24 h before testing and then isolated singly for 24 h in 9-cm Petri dishes with 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, or 96 adult females of T. turkestani. Logistic regression analysis revealed a type III response on cowpeas. Constant (b) and handling time were 0.00718 and 0.3299 h, respectively. In contrast, a type II response was observed in white beans and red beans. The maximum attack (0.1219 h-1) and the minimum handling time (0.2301 h) were recorded on white beans and red beans, respectively. The maximum attack rates (T/Th) were 72.74, 60.42, and 104.30 eggs/day on cowpeas, white beans, and red beans, respectively. This laboratory study suggests that the plant features affect the capability of S. gilvifrons to respond to changes in a high T. turkestani density.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attack rate
  • handling time
  • Fabaceae
  • Strawberry spider mite
Afshari, G.A. 1999. A survey on the ladybirds belong to genus Stethorus and study on the biology, prey consumption and population dynamics of Stethorus gilvifrons in sugarcane farms in Khuzestan, Iran. M. Sc, Thesis, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
Ahn, J.J., Kim, K.W., and Lee, J. H. 2010. Functional response of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry leaves. Journal of Applied Entomology, 134: 96- 104.
Aksit, T., Cakmak, I., and Ozer, G. 2007. Effect of temperature and photoperiod on development and fecundity of acarophagous ladybird beetle, Stethorus gilvifrons. Phytoparasitica, 35(4): 357-366.
Ali, M.P., Naif, A.A., and Huang, D. 2011. Prey consumption and functional response of a phytoseiid predator, Neoseiulus womersleyi, feeding on spider mite, Tetranychus macfarlanei. Journal of Insect Science,11: 1- 11.
Allahyari H.,‎ Azmayeshfard P.‎,‎ Nozari J.‎ 2004. ‎Effects of host on functional response of offspring in two populations of Trissolcus grandis on the sunn pest. ‎Journal of Applied Entomology‎, ‎128‎: ‎39‎-‎ 43.
Biddinger D.J, Weber D.C., and Hull L.A. 2009. Coccinellidae as predator of mites: Stethorini in biological control. Biological Control, 51:268-283.
Bolland H.R., Gutierrez J., and Flechtmann C.H.W. 1998. World catalogue of the spider mite family (Acari: Tetranychidae), with reference to taxonomy, synonymy, host plants and distribution. Brill academic Publisher Leiden. pp. 392.
Carey, J.R., and J.W. Bradley, 1982. Developemental rates, vital schedules, sex ratios, and life tables for Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychus turkestani and Tetranychus pacificus (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on cotton. Acarologia, 23 (4): 333-345.
Cedola, C.V., Sanchez, N.E., and Liljestrom, G.G. 2001. Effect of tomato leaf hairiness on functional and numerical response of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 25: 819- 831.
Chazeau, J. 1985. Predaceous insects. In: Helle, W. and Sabelis, M.W. (editors) World crop pests, spider mites: Their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier Publisher, Amesterdam, IB: pp: 211-246.
Coll, M., and Ridgway, R.L. 1995. Functional and numerical responses of Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) to its prey in different vegetable crops. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 88: 732-738.
Croft, P., Fenlon, J., Jacobson, R.J., and Dubas, J. 1999. Effect of tomato conditioning on Phytoseiulus persimilis  Athias- Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) population growth. IOBC WPRS Bulletin, 22(1), 45–48.
De Clercq, P., Mohaghegh, J., and Tirry, L. 2000. Effect of Host Plant on the functional response of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Biological Control, 18: 66-70.
Dicke, M., Sabelis, M.W., Takabayashi, J., Bruin, J., Posthumus, M.A. 1990. Plant strategies of manipulating predator prey interactions through allelochemicals: prospects for application in pest control. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 16, 3091- 3018.
Eisner, T. 1970. Chemical defense against predation in arthropods. In Sondheimer, E., Simeone, J. B. (eds). Chemical ecology. Academic Press, New York, New York, USA. Pp: 157-217.
Farhadi, R., Allahyari, H., Juliano, S.A., 2010. Functional response of larval and adult stages of Hippodamia variegate (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to different species of Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 39 (5): 1586- 1592.
Gontijo, L.M., Nechols, J.R., Margolies, D.C., and Cloyd, R.A. 2012. Plant architecture and prey distribution influence foraging behavior of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 56: 23- 32.
Haji-zadeh, G. Kamali K., and Baiat|-asadi, H. 1993. Investigations on the functional response and population fluctuation of Stethorus gilvifrons on red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi in orchards around Karaj, Iran. Pest and Disease Journal, 61: 117- 131.
Haque, M.F., Islam, M.W., Khalequzzaman, M. 2010. Functional response of Phytoseius persimilis Athias-Henriot to Tetranychs urticae Koch: effect of prey life stage and temperature. University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University, 29 (1): 1- 8.
Hassell, M.P. Lawton, J.H., and Beddington, J.R. 1977. Sigmoid functional response by invertebrate predators and parasitoids. Journal of Animal Ecology, 46: 249- 262.
Hassell, M. 1978. The dynanics of orthropod predator – prey system. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 237 pp.
Helle, W., and Sabelis, M.W. 1985. Spider mites: Their biology, natural enemies, and control. Vol. 1A and1B. Amsterdam, Elsevier.
Holling, C.S. 1959. Some characteristics of simple types of predation and parasitism. Canadian Entomologist, 91: 385- 398.
Holling, C.S. 1965. The functional response of predators to prey density and its role in mimicry and population regulation. Memory of the Entomological Society of Canada, 48: 3- 60.
Holling, C.S. 1966. The functional response of invertebrate predators to prey density. Memory of the Entomological Society of Canada,  98: 5- 86.
Hoy, M.A. 2011. Agricultural acarology: Introduction to integrated mite management. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group.
Imani, Z., Shishehbor, P., and Mossadegh, M.S. 2010. Functional response of the coccinellid predator Stethorus gilvifrons on different stages of Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein). Plant Protection (Journal of Agicultural Science), 33 (1): 1- 10.
Jeppson, L.R., Keifer, H.H., and Baker, E.W. 1975. Mites injurious to economic plants. University of California Press. 614 pp.
Juliano, S.A. 2001. Nonlinear curve fitting: predation and functional response curves. In: Scheiner, S. M., Gurevitch, J. (eds) Design and analysis of ecological experiments. New York, Oxford University Press, pp: 178- 196.
Kamali, K., Ostowan, H., and Atamehr, A. 2001. A catalogue of mites and ticks (Acari) of Iran. Tehran, Islamic Azad University Scientific Publication Centre, pp. 192.
Karami Jamour, T., Shishebor, P., and Mossadegh, M.S. 2012. Biology and life table parameters of strawberry spider mite, Tetranychus turkestani studied on three cucurbit plants. Iranian Plant Protection Sciences Journal, 43 (1): 23- 31.
Karami Jamour, T., and Shishebor, P. 2012. Host plant effects on the functional response of Stethorus gilvifrons to strawberry spider mites. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 22: 101-110.
Khanamani, M., Fathipour, Y., Talebi, A.A., Mehrabadi, M. 2017. Quantitative analysis of long-term mass rearing of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on almond pollen. Journal of Economic Entomology, 110 (4): 1442- 1450.
Kohpayezadeh Isfahani, P., and Mossadegh, M.S. 1993. Part of the coccinellids (Col.: Coccinellidae) fauna of Kerman province. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 16 (1, 2): 64- 75.
Kolberg, I., Bylund, H., Jonsson, T., Schmidt, A., Greshenzon, J., Bjorkman, C. 2015. Temperature affects insect outbreak risk through tritrophic interactions mediated by plant secondary compounds. Ecosphere, 6 (6): 102.
Li, D.X., Tian, J., Shen, Z.R. 2007. Functional response of the predator Scolothrips takahashii to hawthorn spider mite, Tetranychus viennensis: effect of age and temperature. BioControl, 52: 41- 61.
Matin, M. 2007. Biology and predation of ladybird Stethorus gilvifrons on old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus McGregor. M. Sc. Thesis, Mohaghegh Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran.
McMurtry, J., Huffaker, C.B., and Dev Rie, M.V. 1970. Ecology of Tetranychus. In: enemies: Their biological characters and impact of spray practices. Hilgardia, 40: 331-390.
Mehr-khou, F. 2006. Searching behavior of Stethorus gilvifrons on two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. M. Sc. Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Messina, F.J., and Hanks, J.B. 1998. Host plant alters the shape of functional response of an aphid predator (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Environmental Entomology, 27: 1196- 1202.
Modarres Awal, M. 2012. List of agricultural pests and their natural enemies in Iran. Revised Edition. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publication.
Mossadegh, M.S., and Kocheili, F. 1993. Some of the ladybirds (Coccinellidae) fauna of Khuzestan, southern Iran. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture). 16 (1, 2): 23- 30.
Mossadegh M.S., and Kocheili F. 2003. A semi descriptive checklist of identified species of arthropods (Agricultural, Medical, …) and other pests from Khuzestan, Iran. Shahid Chamran University Press, Ahvaz, 342 pp
Murdoch W.W. 1969. Switching in general predators: experiments on predator specificity and stability of prey populations. Ecological Monographs, 39 (4): 335–364.
Nemati, A, Soleiman Nejadian, E., Shishehbor, P., and Kamali, K. 2005. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on biological parameters of two spotted spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov and Nikolski (Acari: Tetranychidae). Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 28 (1): 209- 222.
O’Neil, R.J. 1989. Comparison of laboratory and field measurements of the functional response of Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Journal of Kansas Entomological Society, 62: 148- 155.
Prevez, A., and Omkar, P. 2005. Functional responses of coccinellid predators: an illustration of a logistic approach. Journal of Insect Science, 5: 1- 6.
Price, P.W., Bouton, C. E., Gross, P., McPheron, B.A., Thompson, J.N., and Weis, A.E. 1980. Interaction among tritrophic levels: influence of plant on interaction between herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11: 41- 56.
Putman, W.L. 1955. Bionomics of Stethorus punctillum Weise (col: Coccinelidae) in Ontario. Canadian Entomologist, 87:33-9.
Ricci, C. and Capelletti, G. 1998. Relationship between some morphological structures and locomotion of Clithostethus arcuatus Rossi (Coleoptera; Coccinellidae), a whitefly predator. Frustula Entomologica, 11, 195–202.
Riddick, E.W., Rojas, M.G., and Wu, Z. 2011. Lima bean-lady beetle interactions: spider mite mediates sub lethal effects of its host plant on growth and development of its predator. Arthropod-Plant Interactions, 5: 287-296.
Riddick, E.W., and Wu, Z. 2011. Lima bean–lady beetle interactions: hooked trichomes affect survival of Stethorus punctillum larvae. BioControl, 56: 55–63.
Riddick, E. W., and Simmons, A. 2014. Do plant trichomes cause more than good to predatory insects? Pest Management Sciences, 70: 1655- 1665.
Rogers, D. 1972. Random search and insect population models. Journal of Animal Ecology, 369- 383.
SAS Institute., 2012. Version 9.1, Qualification Tools user Guide, NC, USA: Cary.
Skirvin, D.J., and Fenlon, J.S. 2001. Plant species modifies the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): implications for biological control. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 91:61-67.
Skirvin, D.J., and Fenlon, J.S. 2003. The effect of temperature on the functional response of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 31: 37- 49.
Sohrabi, F., and Shishehbor, P. 2007. Functional and numerical response of Stethorus Gilvifrons Mulsant (Col.: Coccinellidae) feeding on Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov and Nikolski (Acari: Tetranychidae). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10 (24): 4563-4566.
Sohrabi, F., and Shishehbor, P. 2008. Effects of host plant and temperature on growth and reproduction of the strawberry spider mite Tetranychus turkestani Ugarov & Nikolski (Acari: Tetranychidae). Systematic and Applied Acarology, 13: 26-32.
Solomon, M. E. 1949.The natural control of animal populations. Journal of Animal Ecology, 18: 1- 35.
Sütterlin, S., and van Lenteren, J.C. 1997. Influence of hairiness of Gerbera jamesonii leaves on the searching efficiency of the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Biological Control, 9: 157- 165.
Takafuji, A., and Deguchi, K. 1980. Functional responses of a predacious phytoseiid mite in different sizes of experimental universe. Applied and Experimental Zoology, 15: 355- 357.
Tomczyk A., and Kropczynska, D. 1985. Effects of host plants. In: Helle W. Sabelis M. W. (eds). Spider mites: their biology, natural enemies and control. Volume 1A. Elsevier Science Publisher. Pp. 317- 330.
Van Haren, R.J.F., Steenhuis, M.M., Sabelis, M.W., and De Ponti, O.M.B. 1987. Tomato stem trichomes and dispersal success of Phytoseiulus persimilis relative to its prey Tetranychus urticae. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 3: 115- 121.
Walter, D.E., and O’Dowd, D.J. 1992. Leaf morphology and predators: effect of leaf domatia on the abundance of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Environmental Entomology, 21: 478- 484.
Wiedenmann, R. N. and O’Neil, R. J. 1991. Searching behavior and time budgets of the predator Podisus maculiventris. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 60: 83- 93.
Zarghami, S., Mossadegh, M.S., Kocheili, F., Allahyari, H., Rasekh, A. 2016. Functional responses of Nephus arcuatus Kapur (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the most important predator of spherical mealybug Nipaecoccus virdis (Newstead). Psyche, 2016: 1-9.
Zhang, Z. 2003. Mites of greenhouses identification, biology and control. CABI Publishing, 234 pp.