ارزیابی کارایی قارچکش‌های شیمیایی در بهبود کیفیت بذر و مهار بیماری لکه برگی آلترناریایی گشنیز

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

2 استاد، موسسه تحقیقات ثبت و گواهی بذر و نهال، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

بیماری لکه برگی آلترناریایی ناشی از Alternaria alternata یکی از مهم­‌ترین بیماری‌­های بذرزاد گشنیز است. هدف از این مطالعه شناسایی ریخت‌شناختی و مولکولی قارچ‌های بذرزاد جداسازی شده از توده‌های بومی گشنیز، بررسی تأثیر تیمار بذور با قارچکش‌های شیمیایی روی شاخص‌های بنیه و جوانه‌زنی و همچنین بررسی کارایی آن­ها در مهار بیماری‌ بذرزاد لکه برگی آلترناریایی است. به منظور شناسایی قارچ‌های بذرزاد، توده‌های بذری گشنیز از مزارع استان‌های خراسان جنوبی، البرز، مرکزی، قزوین و همدان بر اساس ضوابط انجمن بین‌المللی آزمون بذر نمونه‌برداری شد. جدایه‌های قارچی پس از جداسازی و خالص‌سازی، بر اساس ویژگی‌های ریخت‌شناختی و آغازگرهای اختصاصی گونه شناسایی و تأیید شدند. همچنین میزان بیماریزایی و قدرت تهاجم جدایه‌ها با آزمون بیماریزایی روی گیاهچه بررسی شد. میزان کارایی تیمار بذر با قارچکش‌های ایپرودیون-کاربندازیم (Rovral-TS®) و مانکوزب (Dithane M-45®) روی شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی و بنیه و همچنین میزان پیشرفت بیماری ارزیابی شد. در مجموع، بر اساس ویژگی‌های ریخت‌شناختی و مولکولی هشت جدایه Alternaria alternata شناسایی شدند. شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی و بنیه بین توده‌های بذری متفاوت بوده و به نظر می‌رسد بخشی از تفاوت مشاهده شده ناشی از آلودگی به قارچ‌های بذرزاد است. نتایج آزمون بیماریزایی نشان داد که حدود 5/62 درصد جدایه‌ها بیماریزا و 5/37 درصد جدایه‌های بیماریزا نبودند. میزان بیماریزایی و قدرت تهاجم جدایه‌های مختلف A. alternata متفاوت بود. تیمار بذر با قارچکش‌های شیمیایی به‌طور قابل‌توجهی روی شاخص‌های جوانه‌زنی و بنیه تأثیر معنی دار داشتند. قارچکش‌ها به‌طور کامل لکه برگی آلترناریایی گشنیز را مهار نکردند. یافته های این پژوهش نشان داد که میزان غلظت‌های مؤثر بازدارندگی قارچکش‌های شیمیایی با توجه به میزان بیماریزایی جدایه‌های مختلف A. alternata متفاوت است. ضدعفونی بذور با قارچکش‌ ایپرودیون-کاربندازیم در مقایسه با مانکوزب موجب بیشترین میزان کاهش شاخص بیماری ناشی از A. alternata روی گیاهچه­‌های گشنیز می‌­شود. استفاده از توده­‌ی بذری نهاوند در مقایسه با سایر توده‌های بذری گشنیز مورد بررسی و همچنین ضدعفونی بذور قبل از کاشت با قارچکش ایپرودیون-کاربندازیم در تمامی مناطق مساعد کشت این محصول توصیه می­‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The efficiency of chemical fungicides in the improvement of seed quality and control of Alternaria leaf spot disease of coriander

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Khaledi 1
  • M.H. Assareh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
2 Professor, Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objective
Alternaria leaf spot disease, with the common agent of Alternaria alternata, is one of the most important seed-borne diseases of coriander. The present study aimed to identify seed-borne fungi isolated from native coriander seed populations based on morphological and molecular characteristics. In addition, the efficiency and effectiveness of seed treatment with chemical fungicides on vigor and germination indices, as well as the control of seed-borne diseases were evaluated.
Materials and Methods
In order to identify the seed-borne fungi of coriander, seed populations from the fields in South Khorasan, Alborz, Markazi, Qazvin, and Hamedan provinces of Iran were sampled according to the International Rules for Seed Testing. After isolation and purification, fungal isolates were identified and confirmed based on morphological characteristics and species-specific primers. Furthermore, the level of pathogenicity and the aggressiveness of isolates were assessed by pathogenicity test on seedlings. The effectiveness of seed treatment with Iprodione-Carbendazim (Rovral-TS®) and Mancozeb (Dithane M-45®) fungicides on germination and vigor indices, as well as the rate of disease progression were investigated.
Results
A total of eight isolates of Alternaria alternata were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The germination and vigor indices varied among seed populations and it seemed that a part of the observed differences was due to infection by seed-borne fungi. The results of the pathogenicity test showed that approximately 62.5% of the isolates were pathogenic and 37.5% were non-pathogenic. Diverse levels of pathogenicity and aggressiveness were observed for various isolates of A. alternata. Seed treatment with chemical fungicides had a significant influence on germination and vigor indices. Fungicides did not completely control the seed-borne Alternaria leaf spot disease of coriander.
Discussion
The findings of the current research demonstrated that the effective inhibitory concentrations of chemical fungicides varied based on the pathogenicity of distinct isolates of A. alternata. Disinfection of seeds with Iprodione-Carbendazim fungicide caused a lower disease index of A. alternata on coriander seedlings, compared to Mancozeb. In conclusion, the cultivation of Nahavand seed population out of all the evaluated coriander populations and the disinfection of seeds with Iprodione-Carbendazim fungicide before sowing in all areas suitable for the cultivation of this product are recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Germination
  • Identification
  • Pathogenicity
  • Seed-borne
  • seed health
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