کارایی زیستی زنبور پارازیتوئید Venturia canescens Gravenhorst در تغذیه از کرم گلوگاه انارEctomyelois ceratoniae Zeller روی میزبان های مختلف

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده‌ی کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 فارغ‌التحصیل دکتری حشره‌شناسی کشاورزی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده‌ی کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

زنبورVenturia canescens Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)  یکی از پارازیتوئیدهای مهم کرم گلوگاه انار، Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) می‌­باشد. گیاهان میزبان می‌توانند به عنوان یک عامل موثر بر خصوصیات زیستی و کارایی پارازیتوئیدهای گیاه­‌خوار عمل کنند. هدف تحقیق حاضر، بررسی تأثیر میزبان مختلف گیاهی شامل انار، بِه، پسته، پرتقال، خرما، سیب و زیتون و همچنین غذای مصنوعی بر فراسنجه­‌های زیستی زنبور V. canescens در اتاقک رشد، شرایط دمایی 1±30 درجه‌‏ی سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±60 درصد و دوره‏‌ی نوری 14 ساعت روشنایی و 10 ساعت تاریکی بود. هم­چنین، برخی از ترکیبات بیوشیمیایی میزبان­‌ها اندازه­‌گیری شد. بر اساس نتایج، طولانی‌­ترین و کوتاه­‌ترین طول دوره نابالغ پارازیتوئید به‌ترتیب روی بِه و غذای مصنوعی مشاهده شد. کم‌ترین نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت (rm) روی بِه و بیش‌ترین میزان آن‌ روی انار بدست آمد. بین مقادیر برخی از ترکیبات بیوشیمیایی در میزبان­‌های مورد مطالعه اختلاف معنی‌­داری مشاهده شد. همچنین همبستگی مثبت یا منفی معنی‌­داری بین ترکیبات اولیه و ثانویه گیاهی با فراسنجه‌های زیستی زنبور پارازیتوئید مشاهده شد. فراسنجه­‌های باروری، نرخ خالص تولیدمثل (R0) و نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت (rm) همبستگی منفی معنی‌­داری با مقادیر محتوای ترکیبات فنلی، تانن و فلاونوئید گیاهی نشان دادند. نتایج نشان داد که نشوونما و تولیدمثل زنبور V. canescens در تغذیه از کرم گلوگاه روی انار و غذای مصنوعی نسبت به سایر میزبان­‌ها بهتر بود و زنبور کارایی زیستی بالایی روی این دو میزبان نشان داد. یافته به دست آمده در این تحقیق می­‌تواند در پیش‌­بینی نتایج کنترل بیولوژیک کرم گلوگاه در روی میزبان­‌های مختلف مفید واقع شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biological efficiency of parasitoid wasp, Venturia canescens Gravenhorst in the feeding of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae on various hosts

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Golizadeh 1
  • Z. Abedi 2
1 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Ph.D. of Agricultural Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Venturia canescens Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is an important parasitoid of lepidopterous pests, particularly the larval stage of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), which is a polyphagous and key pest. The host plant of the herbivore can have a significant effect on their parasitoids' biological properties and efficiency. Host plants have a direct impact on the biological parameters of the herbivores. Additionally, they can influence the development and reproductive characteristics of herbivores' natural enemies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of seven host plants on the life history of V. canescens, including apple, date, olive, orange, pistachio, pomegranate, and quince, as well as an artificial diet.
Materials and Methods
canescens was grown on each host in a growth chamber set to 30±1°C, 60±5% RH, and photoperiods of 14:10 (L:D). Daily observations and records of stage duration, developmental period, and survival rate were made. The raw data were evaluated using TWO SEX-MSChart based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Moreover, we used a spectrophotometer to determine the phytochemical metabolites of the tested hosts. Correlations between demographic variables and biochemical characteristics of various hosts were then estimated to identify factors affecting tritrophic interaction.
Results
The results indicated that various hosts had a significant effect on the demographic characteristics of the V. canescens. The immature development period was the longest and shortest on quince and artificial diets, respectively. Additionally, V. canescens' intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was lowest on quince and highest on an artificial diet. Furthermore, significant differences in biochemical metabolites were observed in this study between the various hosts. Moreover, significant positive or negative associations were discovered between life history variables and the biochemical characteristics of various hosts. The time required for parasitoid development was positively correlated with the phenol, tannin, and flavonoid content of E. ceratoniae hosts tested. There was a significant negative correlation between the total phenolic content, tannins, and flavonoids of various hosts and the fecundity, net reproductive rate (R0), and intrinsic rate of increase of V. canescens.
Discussion
Our findings may provide basic information for a comprehensive understanding of the tritrophic interactions between plants, herbivores, and parasitoids. Combining host plants and biological control agents may be an effective integrated pest management strategy for E. ceratoniae and other lepidopterous pests. Most importantly, our findings indicated that host plant quality variations could impact the performance and multitrophic communication behavior of V. canescens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • various host plants
  • Life table
  • phytochemical metabolites
  • tritrophic interaction
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