مهار زیستی بیماری پوسیدگی سفید ساقه بادام زمینی با استفاده از قارچ‌های آنتاگونیست در استان گیلان

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

10.22055/ppr.2021.17146

چکیده

بیماری پوسیدگی سفید ساقه با عامل Sclerotium rolfsii یکی از مهم­ترین بیماری­‌های خاک‌­زاد بادام زمینی است که در سطح وسیعی از مزارع کشت بادام زمینی استان گیلان به­‌ویژه در زمان برداشت شایع می­‌شود. به­‌کارگیری میکروارگانیسم‌های مفید، روش جایگزین برای استفاده از قارچ­کش‌­های شیمیایی است. در این پژوهش اثر سه جدایه از Trichoderma spp.، سه جدایه از Penicillium spp.، دو جدایه از Aspergillus spp. و یک جدایه از Cladosporium cladosporioides روی بیمارگر S.rolfsii با استفاده از روش‌­های کشت متقابل، کشت روی اسلاید، متابولیت­‌های فرار و متابولیت­‌های غیرفرار در آزمایشگاه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در آزمایش‌­های گلخانه‌­ای، گیاهان بادام زمینی با این جدایه‌­های قارچی همراه با S. rolfsii مایه‌­زنی شدند و صفاتی مانند شدت بیماری، ارتفاع، وزن تر و وزن خشک گیاه مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که در روش کشت متقابل، T. harzianum و T. virens به ترتیب با 58/93 درصد و 94/92 درصد بیشترین توانایی را در مهار رشد میسلیومی S. rolfsii داشتند. در روش کشت اسلاید، تمامی جدایه‌­ها به‌­جز T. virens و T. viride در مهار ریسه‌­های S. rolfsii موفق بودند. در آزمون متابولیت فرار، P. glabrum و A. flavus به‌­ترتیب با 25/81 درصد و 75 درصد و در آزمون متابولیت غیرفرار T. harzianum و T. viride به‌­ترتیب با 5/97 و 75/93 درصد بیشترین توانایی را در مهار رشد میسلیومی S. rolfsii نشان دادند. همچنین اثرات این قارچ‌ها روی میزان مهار بیمارگر S. rolfsii در مطالعات گلخانه­‌ای مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. نتایج نشان داد که P. glabrum با 4/39 درصد و T. viride با 8/38 درصد موثرترین قارچ‌­ها در کاهش وقوع و شدت بیماری بودند. همچنین به‌­کارگیری این قارچ‌های آنتاگونیست در شرایط گلخانه منجر به افزایش ارتفاع بوته، وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه در حضور قارچ عامل بیماری گردید. تجزیه واریانس و مقایسه میانگین صفات با استفاده از روش حداقل اختلاف معنی‌­دار (LSD)، اختلاف معنی­‌داری بین قارچ­‌های مورد مطالعه در روش‌­های آزمایشگاهی و گلخانه­‌ای را نشان داد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان­ دهنده این مطلب بود که قارچ‌­های T. viride، T. harzianum،P. glabrum، A. flavus و C. cladosporioides موجود در زیستگان طبیعی گیاه بادام زمینی خواص بالقوه‌­ای برای مهار زیستی بیماری پوسیدگی سفید ساقه بادام زمینی از خود نشان می­‌دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biological control of peanut white stem rot disease by antagonistic fungi in Guilan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. R. Safari Motlagh 1
  • M. Farokhzad 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran Rasht, Iran
2 Graduated of Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
White stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is a soilborne disease which is extensively common across the groundnut farms of Guilan province, especially during the harvest period. Using the beneficial microbial agents is an alternative method for applying the chemical fungicides.
Materials and Methods
To find the appropriate fungal antagonistic isolates for the biological control of peanut white stem rot, the effect of three isolates of Trichoderma spp., three isolates of Penicillium spp., two isolates of Aspergillus spp. and one isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides were studied on S. rolfsii in vitro using dual culture, slide culture, volatile metabolites and non-volatile metabolites. Peanut plants were inoculated with these fungal isolates as well as S. rolfsii in greenhouse experiments, and parameters including disease severity, height, fresh weight, and dry weight of the plant were measured.
Results
The results showed that in the dual culture method, T. harzianum and T. virens were most capable of suppressing the mycelial growth of S. rolfsii with a suppression capability of 93.58% and 92.94%, respectively. In the slide culture method, all isolates turned out to be effective in suppressing the mycelia growth of S. rolfsii, except for T. virens and T. viride. In the volatile metabolite assay, P. glabrum and A. flavus with 81.25% and 75%, respectively and in the non-volatile metabolite method, T. harzianum and T. viride with 93.75% and 97.5% respectively showed the greatest ability to inhibit S. rolfsii mycelial growth. Moreover, the effects of these fungi on the control of S. rolfsii pathogen were explored in greenhouse trials. The results revealed that P. glabrum was 39.4% effective and T. viride was 38.8% effective in reducing the extent and intensity of the disease. Under the presence of the pathogen, the treatment of these antagonistic fungi in greenhouse conditions enhanced plant height, shoot and root fresh and dry weight. In the in vitro and greenhouse approaches, an analysis of
 
variance and a comparison of means of the attributes using the least significant difference (LSD) indicated significant differences (P ≤0.01 and P≤ 0.05) among the examined fungi.
Discussion
The results of the in vitro and greenhouse trials showed that T. viride, T. harzianum, P. glabrum, A. flavus, and C. cladosporioides, which are present in the natural flora of groundnuts, have the potential capability of the biological control of S. rolfsii as the pathogen of groundnut stem white rot.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Disease severity
  • Groundnut
  • Physiological factors
  • Sclerotium rolfsii
  • Volatile metabolites
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