تداخل متقابل کنه شکارگر Macrocheles muscaedomesticae با تغذیه از تخم مگس خانگی Musca domestica

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد حشره شناسی کشاورزی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استاد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 دکترای حشره شناسی کشاورزی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

کنه­‌های خانواده Macrochelidae شکارگرهای با زندگی آزاد و همه جایی هستند که در زیستگاه­‌های غنی از مواد آلی در حال پوسیدن مانند کودهای دامی یافت می­‌شوند. برخی از کنه­‌های این خانواده به ویژه گونه Macrocheles muscaedomesticae  که در ایران نیز پراکنش وسیعی دارد به واسطه داشتن قدرت شکارگری به عنوان یک عامل کنترل کننده دوبالان ساکن کودهای حیوانی شناخته شده و در کنترل بیولوژیک آن‌ها دارای اهمیت می­‌باشد. در این پژوهش تداخل متقابل کنه­‌های شکارگر ماده M. muscaedomesticae در انکوباتور و در دو دمای 1 ± 27 و 1 ± 33 درجه سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5 ± 65 درصد و دوره نوری 10:14 (روشنایی: تاریکی) روی تخم مگس خانگی Musca domestica مطالعه شد. برای این منظور تراکم‌های 1، 2، 4 و 8 عددی از کنه­‌های ماده کامل شکارگر همسن سازی و انتخاب شد. سپس تراکم ثابت 100 عددی از تخم­‌های مگس‌خانگی به مدت 6 ساعت در اختیار هر یک از تراکم­‌های ذکر شده کنه کامل ماده قرار گرفت. به منظور تخمین قدرت جستجوی سرانه (a) کنه ماده شکارگر در تراکم­‌های مختلف از معادله نیکولسون استفاده شد. تحلیل داده‌ها نشان داد که در دمای 27 درجه سلسیوس با افزایش تراکم شکارگر از ۱ به ۸، سرانه شکارگری از 70/16 به 69/4 و قدرت جستجوگری سرانه از 183/0 به 058/0 کاهش یافت و در دمای 33 درجه سلسیوس با افزایش تراکم شکارگر از ۱ به ۸، سرانه شکارگری از 20/9 به 81/4 و قدرت جستجوگری سرانه از 097/0 به 061/0 کاهش یافت. منفی بودن شیب خط رگرسیون یا همان ضریب تداخل (6774/0- و 2448/0-) به ترتیب در دو دمای 27 و 33 ، بیانگر این است که با افزایش تراکم کنه شکارگر، میانگین قدرت جستجوی سرانه به ازای هر شکارگر کاهش یافت که نشانگر وجود تداخل به عنوان یک عامل وابسته به تراکم و نیز وابستگی معکوس قدرت جستجو به تراکم شکارگر است. مطالعه حاضر نشان داد کارایی کنه M. muscaedomesticae در تراکم‌­های مختلف این شکارگر متفاوت است و این نتایج می‌­تواند در پرورش انبوه این کنه شکارگر استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Mutual interference of the predatory mite Macrocheles muscaedomesticae by feeding on eggs of the Musca domestica house fly

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Shiralizadeh 1
  • M. Esfandiari 2
  • P. Shishehbor 3
  • S. Farahi 4
1 M.Sc. Graduate student of Agricultural Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
4 PhD of Agricultural Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Macrochelidae are cosmopolitan free-living predators that inhabit habitats rich in decaying organic matter, such as manure. They feed primarily on small arthropods and nematodes. Macrochelidae predators are considered beneficial mites that have been identified as promising biological control agents for fly eggs and larvae, and other harmful organisms. Adult Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli) prefers house fly Musca domestica L. eggs to first instar larvae. This predator has been observed to reduce fly populations in natural conditions significantly, and the reduction was considerably greater when the predator was augmented. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mutual interference on M. muscaedomesticae predation on house fly eggs at 27 ± 1°C and 33 ± 1°C.
Materials and Methods
In this study, we investigated the mutual interference of adult female predators M. muscaedomesticae on house fly eggs in an incubator at two constant temperatures of 27 ± 1°C and 33 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH, 14:10 h (L: D) photoperiod. To this end, the per capita searching efficiency and per capita predation of 1, 2, 4, and 8 female mite M. muscaedomesticae were determined, and 100 house fly eggs were offered to 4-day-mated adult female mites in each predator density for 6 h. Before the experiments, female predators were fed and mated for 48 h and then starved for 24 h to obtain a cohort of M. muscaedomesticae.
Results
A significant relationship was discovered between the logarithm of predator density and M. muscaedomesticae per capita searching efficiency. This dramatically decreased per capita predation rate and per capita searching efficiency as predator density increased at both temperatures. At 27 °C, once predator densities were increased from 1 to 8, per capita predation decreased from 16.70 to 4.69, and per capita searching efficiency decreased from 0.183 to 0.058. At 33 °C, when predator densities were increased from 1 to 8, per capita predation decreased from 9.20 to 4.81, and per capita searching efficiency decreased from 0.097 to 0.061.  
Discussion
The negative slope of the regression line or interference coefficient of -0.6774 and -0.2448 at 27 and 33 °C, respectively, indicated that interference is a density-dependent factor and that per capita searching efficiency exhibits negative density-dependency. As a result, different predator densities may affect M. muscaedomesticae's efficacy. The findings could be applied to the mass rearing techniques of this predator mite in an insectarium.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foraging behavior
  • per capita predation
  • per capita searching efficiency
  • predator mite
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