تأثیر غلظت زیرکشنده حشره‌کش پی‌متروزین بر فراسنجه‌های رشد جمعیت و فعالیت آنزیم‌های استراز در شته سبز گندم Schizaphis graminum Rondani (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته دکتری تخصصی، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

3 استاد گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 استاد، گروه شیمی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

5 دانشجوی دکتری شیمی فیزیک، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

چکیده

شته سبز گندم،Schizaphis graminum Rondani (Hemiptera: Aphididae) ، یکی از آفات مهم غلات به‌ویژه گندم است که در انتقال برخی از ویروس‌­های بیماری­‌زای گیاهی نقش مهمی دارد. هدف تحقیق حاضر، بررسی تأثیر زیرکشندگی حشره­‌کش پی­‌متروزین (Pymetrozine Aria®) بر فراسنجه‌­های جدول زندگی و فعالیت آنزیم‌های آلفا و بتا استراز شته سبز گندم با استفاده از دو سوبسترای آلفا-نفتیل استات و بتا-نفتیل استات در اتاقک رشد با شرایط دمایی 2±25 درجه‌‏ی سلسیوس، رطوبت نسبی 5±60 درصد و دوره‌‏ی نوری 16 ساعت روشنایی و 8 ساعت تاریکی بود. مقدار غلظت کشنده 50 (LC50) و 30 (LC30) درصد حشره­‌کش­ مورد مطالعه روی شته‌­های ماده بالغ S. graminum، به‌­ترتیب 68/84 و 36/39 میلی­‌گرم ماده موثره بر لیتر به دست آمد. نتایج آزمایش تأثیر زیرکشندگی (LC30) این حشره‌­کش نشان داد که طول دوره نشو و نمای پورگی در تیمار حشره­‌کشی­ (33/5 روز) طولانی‌­تر از شاهد (33/6 روز) بود، اما میزان پوره­‌زایی روی تیمار حشره‌­کشی (06/18 پوره/به ازای هر شته کامل) به طور معنی‌­داری کمتر از شاهد (14/38 پوره/ به ازای هر شته کامل) بود. هم­‌چنین، حشره­‌کش مورد مطالعه به­‌طور معنی­‌داری باعث کاهش ویژگی­‌های دموگرافی شته سبز گندم شدند. مقدار نرخ ذاتی افزایش جمعیت (r) شته‌­ها در شاهد و تیمار حشره‌­کشی به‌­ترتیب 394/0 و 280/0 بر روز بود. در این بررسی، میزان فعالیت آنزیم­‌های استراز، براساس میکرومول بر دقیقه بر میلی­‌گرم پروتئین شته‌­های تیمار شده تفاوت معنی­‌داری با شاهد نداشت. نتایج نشان داد که حشره‌­کش­ پی‌متروزین اثر کشندگی و زیرکشندگی قابل توجهی برای شته سبز گندم دارد و می­‌تواند پس از طی مطالعات تکمیلی مزرعه­‌ای، در استفاده بهینه از آفت­‌کش­­‌ها و طراحی برنامه‌­های مدیریت تلفیقی آفت مذکور مورد توجه واقع گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Toxicity and sublethal effects of Pymetrozine insecticide on population growth parameters and detoxifying enzymes activity of Schizaphis graminum Rondani (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Rafiee Dastjerdi 1
  • Z. Abedi 2
  • A. Golizadeh 3
  • A. Habibi-Yangjeh 4
  • S. Feizpoor 5
1 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Ph.D. Graduate Student, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
5 Ph.D. Student of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
The Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum Rondani (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is one of the most important pests in grain, especially wheat, and is an important cause for transferring a number of pathogenic viruses in plants. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the lethal and sublethal effects of Pymetrozine insecticide on life history parameters and α-esterase and β-esterase enzymes activity of S. graminum. Detoxifying enzymes play a vital role in the detoxification of chemical compounds in many living organisms. These enzymes increase the resistance of insects to chemical pesticides by the catalysis of these compounds in their body.
Materials and Methods
The S. graminum was reared on the wheat host in a growth chamber set at 25 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 5 % RH, plus 16: 8 (L: D) hour photoperiods. Daily observations and records were made for the development period and survival rate. The crude data were analyzed based on age-stage and two-sex life table analysis. TWO SEX-MSChart was used to evaluate the raw data based on the age-stage and two-sex life table. In addition, alpha-naphthyl (α-NA) and beta-naphthyl (β-NA) acetates were employed as substrates for the α-esterase and β-esterase activity, respectively. Esterase enzymes of tested treatments were measured using a microplate reader.
Results
Exposing adults to bioassays indicated that the lethal concentration (LC50) of insecticide treatment in S. graminum adults was 84.68 mg a.i./L. The present study demonstrated that Pymetrozine insecticide showed more acute toxicity on adult stages of S. graminum. Moreover, exposure of adults to sublethal concentrations (LC30) negatively affected the development and reproductive characteristics and demographic factors of the Greenbug. In specific, results for sublethal experiments showed a significant increase in the development time of the pest on the insecticide treatment compared with the control. On the contrary, the lowest fecundity in pests was observed on Pymetrozine insecticide. In addition, the tested insecticide significantly reduced the population growth parameters of S. graminum, which can be identified using detoxifying enzymes as biochemical markers of the pest. Estimation values for the intrinsic rate of increase (r) in the control and insecticide treatment were 0.394 and 0.280 per day, respectively. Furthermore, the activity of alpha and beta esterase was not significantly different between control and insecticide treatment.
Discussion
The results revealed that Pymetrozine insecticide exerts high lethal and sublethal effects on S. graminum, and thus, it is recommended to be applied in an integrated pest management program (IPM). Semifield and field studies are needed to obtain more applicable results using insecticides.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • toxicity
  • Life table
  • biochemical characteristics
  • esterase
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