سمیت حشره‌کش‌های تترانیلی‌پرول، کلرانترانیلی‌پرول، لوفنورون و تیوسیکلام روی دو گونه زنبورTrichogramma brassicae Bezdenko و T. evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) تحت شرایط آزمایشگاهی و نیمه مزرعه‌ای

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی -انگلیسی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات گیاهپزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مرکزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی اراک، اراک، ایران

چکیده

زنبورهای تریکوگراما یکی از موفق ترین گونه های پارازیتوئید در دنیا بوده و به طور گسترده در جهان برای کنترل بیشتر آفات استفاده می شوند. به واسطه یافتن حشره‌کش‌هایی با اثرات سوء کمتر روی این زنبورها تاثیر غلظت توصیه شده مزرعه‌ای و نصف غلظت توصیه شده مزرعه‌ای حشره‌کش‌های تترانیلی‌پرول،کلرانترانیلی­پرول، لوفنورون و تیوسیکلام روی مراحل مختلف رشدی دو گونه زنبور Trichogramma evanescens Westwood و Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تخم های پارازیته شده بید غلات در مراحل لاروی، پیش شفیرگی و شفیرگی به روش غوطه‌وری با محلول‌های حشره‌کش ها تیمار شدند. جهت ارزیابی پایداری حشره کش‌ها، غلظت‌های توصیه شده مزرعه‌ای آن‌ها با یک سم پاش دستی روی گیاهان گوجه فرنگی تا جاری شدن محلول سمی پاشیده شد. گیاهان گوجه فرنگی زیر یک پوشش پلاستیکی به عنوان حفاظ باران نگهداری شدند. نمونه‌برداری از گیاهان گوجه فرنگی در روزهای 3، 5، 16 و 31 روز پس از تیمار انجام شد. بر اساس نتایج تیوسیکلام در هر دو غلظت (توصیه شده مزرعه­‌ای و نصف غلظت توصیه شده مزرعه‌­ای) مضرترین حشره کش برای مراحل نابالغ به خصوص مرحله پیش‌شفیرگی هر دو گونه زنبور تریکوگراما بود. تترانیلی­‌پرول با درصد مرگ و میر 33/23 و 11/21 در کمتر از پنج روز به ترتیب برای‌گونه‌های Trichogramma brassicae و T. evanescens در گروه حشره‌کش‌های بی‌دوام ارزیابی گردید. نتیجه مشابهی برای کلرانترانیلی­پرول با درصد مرگ و میر 25 و 11/26 به ترتیب برای دو گونه مذکور حاصل شد. همچنین لوفنورون نیز با 55/30 و 30 درصد مرگ و میر به ترتیب برای دو گونه Trichogramma brassicae  و T. evanescens در کمتر از پنج روز بی دوام ارزیابی شد. ولی تیوسیکلام با 44/14و 67/16 درصد مرگ و میر در 31 روز پس از سم­‌پاشی و با 55/65 و 44/69 درصد مرگ و میر در کمتر از 5 روز برای دو گونه در گروه حشره کش های با دوام متوسط قرار گرفت. بنابراین با توجه به نتایج تترانیلی­پرول، کلرانترانیلی­پرول و لوفنورون را می‌توان با رعایت فاصله مناسب سم پاشی جهت رها سازی زنبور تریکوگراما، جهت کنترل آفات بال‌پولکدار استفاده نمود. در مقابل تیوسیکلام بایستی با احتیاط بیشتری مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Toxicity of tetraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, lufenuron and thiocyclam insecticides on Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko and T. evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) under laboratory and semi-field conditions

نویسنده [English]

  • S. Ashtari
Plant Protection Research Department, Markazi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Arak, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Trichogramma wasp is one of the most successful parasitic species in the world, mainly used to control many pests. The effects of field (RC) and half recommended concentrations (half RC) of four insecticides: 1. Tetraniliprole, 2. Chlorantraniliprole 3. Lufenuron, and 4. Thiocyclam was studied in different preimaginal stages of 1. Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko and 2. Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Parasitized eggs of the angoumois grain moth Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were treated by 1. The dipping method at the larval, 2. Prepupal, and 3. Pupal stages of the parasitoid. For persistence evaluation, the insecticides were applied at the recommended concentration on tomato plants in a pot by a hand sprayer till the Runoff point. Plants were maintained under a transparent polyethylene rain cover in the field. Leaves of the treated tomato plants were sampled and transferred to the laboratory at time intervals of 3, 5, 16, and 31 days after application. In this experiment were adults (< 24 hours old) of T. brassicae and T. evanescens. Based on our results, thiocyclam at both RC and half RC was the most harmful insecticide for immature stages of both parasitoids. This insecticide at the prepupal stage (at both RC and half RC) had more adverse effects than in pupal or larval stages. Tetraniliprole, with 23.33% and 21.11% mortality in less than five days, was classified as the short-lived insecticide for T. brassicae and T. evanescens, respectively. The same result was obtained in the chlorantraniliprole treatment. That caused 25% and 26.11% mortality to the parasitoids, T. brassicae, and T. evanescens. Lufenuron, with 30.55% and 30.00% mortality in less than five days, was short-lived. However, thiocyclam, with 14.44% and 16.67% mortality in less than 30 days and 65.55% and 69.44% mortality in less than five days, was classified as moderately persistent for those two species. Therefore, according to the results, 1. tetraniliprole, 2. chlorantraniliprole, and 3. lufenuron can control lepidopteran pests by observing the appropriate spraying distance to release Trichogramma wasps. Thiocyclam, on the other hand, should be employed with extreme caution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Trichogramma
  • Persistence
  • Insecticides
  • Integrated pest management
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