عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Legumes are the second most significant plant source of human protein-rich diets after cereals. Additionally, these plants improve soil structure through biological nitrogen fixation. Plant pathogens are one of the most important global constraints on chickpea production. Plant-parasitic nematodes are key damaging agents to crop production. Broad beans, soybeans, lentils, beans, mung beans, and chickpeas are hosts for P. ritteri, and under greenhouse conditions, this nematode reduces the majority of plant growth indices. Various methods are employed to control plant-parasitic nematodes, most of which rely on chemical control. This study was conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to examine the effects of refined wood vinegar, unrefined wood vinegar, chloro carboxylic acid, and sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate on P. ritteri.
Materials and Methods
In this study, 66 soil and plant root samples were collected from chickpea fields in Lorestan province's counties. P. ritteri nematodes were identified after extraction using conventional techniques. The number of P. ritteri nematodes per kilogram of soil in an infected field soil was determined, and this soil was subsequently used in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The effect of four compounds, including refined wood vinegar, unrefined wood vinegar, chloro carboxylic acid, and sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, on P. ritteri was investigated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, as was the mortality of P. ritteri in chickpea. The data were analyzed using SPSS22 software, and tests were conducted using randomized complete block designs.
A comparison of the mean mortality of P. ritteri under laboratory conditions revealed that the highest mortality was associated with a 1% chloro carboxylic acid treatment for 24 h (100%), and the lowest mortality was attributed to a 0.5% refined wood vinegar treatment for 12 hours (25%). Under greenhouse conditions, the chloro carboxylic acid treatment resulted in the highest mortality, 1% (94%), while the unrefined wood vinegar treatment had the lowest mortality, 0.5% (49%). In addition, the mortality rate demonstrated a significant difference at P≤0.05 in two frames of 12 and 24 h for most compounds (except for sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate 0.5%) and at P≤0.01 in two levels of 1% and 0. 5% for all compounds.
All investigated compounds induced nematode mortality, with chloro carboxylic acid proving to be the most effective for nematode mortality and unrefined wood vinegar the least effective. Consequently, these compounds can be used as pre-planting to control these nematodes.