تاثیر کشت نواری پیاز با شنبلیله و پیاز با گلرنگ در تراکم جمعیت تریپس پیاز، Thrips tabaci، تنوع شکارگرهای آن و عملکرد محصول

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسنده

استاد، گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

10.22055/ppr.2024.45228.1717

چکیده

کشت نواری یکی از روش‌های رایج در کاهش جمعیت آفات و افزایش فراوانی و تنوع دشمنان طبیعی در هر زیستگاه است. در این تحقیق، اثر کشت نواری چهار ردیف پیاز (Allium cepa L.) با دو ردیف شنبلیله (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) (4O:2F) و چهار ردیف پیاز با دو ردیف گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.) (4O:2S) در مقایسه با تک‌کشتی پیاز بر تراکم تریپس پیاز، Thrips tabaci Lind.، تنوع زیستی شکارگرها، و عملکرد محصول در سال‌های 1401 و 1402 در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تراکم لاروها و حشرات کامل تریپس پیاز به ازای یک گیاه در هر دو کشت نواری در مقایسه با تک‌کشتی پیاز کاهش قابل توجهی داشت. علاوه بر این، شاخص خسارت برگ به ازای یک گیاه نیز در کشت‌های نواری کاهش معنی‌داری داشت. ضریب تعیین (R2) بین شاخص خسارت برگ و وزن خشک پیاز در هر بوته در هر دو کشت نواری و نیز تک-کشتی پیاز معنی‌دار بود. فراوانی کل شکارگرها در هر دو کشت نواری، به ویژه کشت 4O:2F بیشتر از تک‌کشتی پیاز بود. از سوی دیگر بیشترین مقدار شاخص تنوع شانون برای مجموعه شکارگرها در کشت نواری 4O:2F (13/2 در سال 1401 و 06/2 در سال 1402) محاسبه شد. علاوه بر آن، مقدار شاخص یکنواختی پیلو در هر دو کشت نواری بیشتر از تک‌کشتی پیاز بود. همچنین، بیشترین مقدار نسبت برابری زمین (LER) در کشت نواری 4O:2F (33/1در سال 1401 و 26/1 در سال 1402) محاسبه شد. بنابراین، می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که هر دو کشت نواری، به ویژه 4O:2F یک راه‌کار سالم برای مدیریت تریپس پیاز در مزارع پیاز می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of intercropping onion with fenugreek and onion with safflower on population density of the onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, biodiversity of its predators, and crop yield

نویسنده [English]

  • S.A. A. Fathi
Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Strip cultivation is one of the effective methods to reduce the population of pests and increase the abundance and diversity of natural enemies in any habitat. Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lind., is a pest of onion (Allium cepa L.) worldwide. Larvae and adults of thrips feed on cell sap and cause silver spots on the surface of leaves of onion plants that consequently result in a significant reduction in onion yield. Control of onion thrips is difficult due to the short generation time, high fecundity, and the emergence of insecticide-resistant genotypes. Predators in each region, such as hemipterans, ladybugs, syrphid flies, carabid beetles, mites, and spiders, are effective in the biological control of the onion thrips population in fields. Intercropping systems can affect the biological control of pests by providing food and habitat resources for natural enemies. Therefore, designing effective and appropriate methods to reduce the population of onion thrips and increase the diversity and abundance of natural enemies can effectively manage T. tabaci in fields.

Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of intercropping four rows of onion (Allium cepa L.) with two rows of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) (4O:2F) and four rows of onion with two rows of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) (4O:4S) was investigated on densities of the onion thrips, biodiversity of predators, and crop yields in 2022 and 2023. The experiments were accomplished in a randomized complete block design with two intercrops of 4O:2F and 4O:4S along with the sole crops.

The density of onion thrips and predators per plant was counted and recorded on weakly sampling dates by direct counting using a magnifying glass. The predatory species that we suspected in their identification were transferred to the laboratory and carefully identified through morphological characteristics under a stereomicroscope. The average annual abundance of each predator species and the abundance of predators per plant in each plot were calculated during the onion growing season. In addition, Shannon's diversity index (H') and Pielou's evenness index (J') were calculated for the complexity of predators in each plot and in each tested year to compare the cropping systems. The onion, fenugreek, and safflower yield per square meter were estimated in strip intercropping systems and single crops. Then, the land equality ratio (LER) was calculated for both intercrops to estimate the yield advantage regarding the monoculture of each crop.

Results: Three intercrops led to a significant reduction in the densities of larvae and adults of onion thrips compared with sole onion. Further, the leaf damage index was lower in intercrops than in single onion in two seasons. A significant coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated between the leaf damage index and the dry weight of onion per plant in two intercrop and sole onions. The total abundance of predators was higher in intercrops, especially 4O:2F than in the sole crop. More values of the Shannon diversity index and the Pielou's evenness index for predators were recorded in intercrops compared with the sole crop in two seasons. The dry yield of onions per square meter was more significant in both strip intercropping systems compared to single onions in 2022 and 2023. On the contrary, the dry yield of fenugreek and safflower per square meter was insignificant among intercrops and single crops in two years. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER) was calculated for 4O:2F.

Discussion: Overall, the intercropping of onion and fenugreek (4O:2F) and onion and safflower (4O:2S) demonstrated a reduction in the population of onion thrips. Both intercrops, particularly 4O:2F, contributed to an increase in the abundance and diversity of predators and the values of LER when compared with sole crops. As a result, farmers could consider implementing both intercrops, particularly 4O:2F, as an environmentally conscious approach to managing T. tabaci in the field.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Diversity
  • Pest population
  • Sustainable control
  • Yield benefit
Abad, M.K.R., Fathi, S.A.A., Nouri-Ganbalani, G. & Amiri-Besheli, B. (2020a). Influence of tomato/clover intercropping on the control of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 40, 39–48.
Abad, M.K.R., Fathi, S.A.A., Nouri-Ganbalani, G. & Amiri-Besheli, B. (2020b). The effect of intercropping of tomato and clover on control of melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 42, 67-80.
Abenaim, L., Bedini, S., Greco, A., Giannotti, P. & Conti, B. (2022). Predation capacity of the banded thrips Aeolothrips intermedius for the biological control of the onion thrips Thrips tabaci. Insects,13, 8.
Alioghli, N., Fathi, S.A.A., Razmjou, J. & Hassanpour, M. (2022). Does intercropping patterns of potato and safflower affect the density of Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), predators, and the yield of crops? Biological Control, 175, 105051.
Bei-Bienko, G.Y., Blagoveshchenskii, D.I., Chernova, O.A., Dantsing, E.M., Emilianov, A.F., Kerzhner, I.M. & et al. (1967). Keys to the insects of the European USSR, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Zoological Institute.
Belder, E., Elderson, J. & Vereijken, P.F.G. (2000). Effects of undersown clover on host-plant selection by Thrips tabaci adults in leek. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 94, 173–182.
Brooks, S.J. & Barnard, P.C. (1990). The green lacewings of the world: a generic review (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, 59, 117–286.
Diaz-Montano, J., Fuchs, M., Nault, B.A., Fail, J. & Shelton, A.M. (2011). Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion. Journal of Economic Entomology, 104, 1–13.
Fathi, S.A.A. (2014). Screening of the susceptibility of newly released genotypes of potato to thrips infestation under field conditions in northwest Iran. Crop Protection, 62, 79–85.
Fathi, S.A.A. (2017). Effect of intercropping systems of green bean and clover on biodiversity of natural enemies of Thrips tabaci Lindeman. Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 40, 13–25.
Fathi, S.A.A. (2018). Influence of intercropping systems of corn and sunflower in control of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). Plant Protection (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 41, 1-16.
Fathi, S.A.A. (2022). The role of intercrops of eggplant and cowpea on the control of Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Biocontrol, 67, 307–317.
Fathi, S.A.A. (2023). Eggplant-garlic intercrops reduce the density of Tetranychus urticae on eggplant and improve crop yield. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 91, 43–55.
Gombač, P. & Trdan, S. (2014). The efficacy of intercropping with birdsfoot trefoil and summer savoury in reducing damage inflicted by onion thrips (Thrips tabaci, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) on four leek cultivars. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 121, 117–124.
Gordon, R. (1985). The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of America, north of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 93, 1–912.
Grez, A.A. & González, R.H. (1995). Resource concentration hypothesis: effect of host plant patch size on density of herbivorous insects. Oecologia, 103, 471–474.
Khan, Z.R., Midega, C.A.O., Wanyama, J.M. & et al. (2009). Integration of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) into the push–pull technology developed for stemborer and Striga control in maize-based cropping systems. Crop Protection, 28, 997-1006.
Landis, D.A., Wratten, S.D. & Gurr, G.M. (2000). Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture. Annual Review of Entomology, 45, 175–201.
Letourneau, D.K., Armbrecht, I., Rivera, B.S., Lerma, J.M., Carmona, E.J., Daza, M.C., Escobar, S., Galindo, V., Gutiérrez, C., López, S.D. & et al. (2011). Does plant diversity benefit agroecosystems? A synthetic review. Ecological Applications, 21, 9–21.
Lewis, T. (1973). Thrips: their biology, ecology and economic importance. Academic, London, United Kingdom.
Magurran, A.E. (2004). Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell publishing, Oxford, UK.
Mohammadi, K., Fathi, S.A.A., Razmjou, J. & Naseri, B. (2021). Evaluation of the effect of strip intercropping green bean/garlic on the control of Tetranychus urticae in the field. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 83, 183–195.
Mollaei, M., Fathi, S.A.A., Nouri-Ganbalani, G., Hassanpour, M. & Golizadeh, A. (2021). Effects of strip intercropping of canola with faba bean, field pea, garlic, or wheat on control of cabbage aphid and crop yield. Plant Protection Science, 57, 59–65.
Mound, L.A. & Kibby, G. (1998). Thysanoptera: an identification guide, 2nd edition. CAB International, Wallingford.
Nault, B.A. & Shelton, A.M. (2010). Impact of insecticide efficacy on developing action thresholds for pest management: a case study of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion. Journal of Economic Entomology, 103, 1315–1326.
Sekine, T., Masuda, T. & Inawashiro, S. (2021). Suppression effect of intercropping with barley on Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion fields. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 56, 59–68.
Shelton, A.M. & North, R.C. (1987). Injury and control of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on edible podded peas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80, 1325–1330.
Shelton, A.M., Zhao, J.Z., Nault, B.A., Plate, J., Musser, F.R. & Larentzaki, E. (2006). Patterns of insecticide resistance in onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion fields in New York. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99, 1798–1804.
Simmonds, N.W. & Vandermeer, J. (1989). The ecology of intercropping. Journal of Applied Ecology, 26, 1107.
Southwood, T.R.E., & Henderson P.A. (2000). Ecological Methods. Blackwell Science, USA
Tajmiri, P., Fathi, S.A.A., Golizadeh, A. & Nouri-Ganbalani, G. (2017). Effect of strip-intercropping potato and annual alfalfa on populations of Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say and its predators. International Journal of Pest Management, 63, 273–279.
Theunissen, J. & Schelling, G. (1998). Infestation of leek by Thrips tabaci as related to spatial and temporal patterns of undersowing. Biocontrol, 43, 107–119.
Theunissen, J. & Schelling, G. (2013) Damage threshold for Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in monocropped and intercropped leek. European Journal of Entomology, 94, 253–261.
Trautner, J. & Geigenmüller, K. (1987). Tiger beetles, ground beetles: illustrated key to the Cicindelidae and Carabidae of Europe. J. Margraf; Margraf, Distributor, Aichtal, Gaimersheim, FR Germany.
Trdan, S., Žnldarčič, D., Valič, N., Rozman, L. & Vidrih, M. (2006). Intercropping against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion production: on the suitability of orchard grass, lacy phacelia, and buckwheat as alternatives for white clover. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 113, 24–30.
van Veen, M.P. (2014). Hoverflies of Northwest Europe: identification keys to the Syrphidae, hoverflies of Northwest Europe. KNNV Publishing.
Vijayalakshmi, A. G., Ashok, J., Nadagouda, S., & Aswathanarayan, D. S. (2018). Influence of intercrops on the incidence of thrips, Thrips tabaci (L.) in onion ecosystem. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6(5), 658-661.
Zamani, A. (2023). Spiders of Iran – Systematics, diversity and distribution. Turun Yliopisto University of Turku.
Zarei, E., Fathi, S.A.A., Hassanpour, M. & Golizadeh, A. (2019). Assessment of intercropping tomato and sainfoin for the control of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Crop Protection, 120, 125–133.