ارزیابی مقاومت ژنوتیپ‌های گندم‌ نسبت به بیماری زنگ ساقه با استفاده از تجزیه بای‌پلات (GGE biplot)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش علوم زراعی و باغی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اردبیل، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج، مغان، ایران

2 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی آذربایجان‌شرقی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج، تبریز، ایران

10.22055/ppr.2024.45521.1721

چکیده

بیماری زنگ سیاه یا ساقه گندم با عامل قارچی (Pgt) Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici با داشتن پتانسیل از بین بردن کامل محصول در مزارع تهدید بسیار جدی برای امنیت غذایی در سراسر جهان به‌شمار می‌آید. کارآمدترین روش کنترل این بیماری شناسایی ژن‌های مقاومت ‌موثر نسبت به بیمارگر در ارقام مقاوم و ایجاد مقاومت‌های ژنتیکی پایدار از طریق هرمی‌سازی ژن‌های مقاومت موثر در ژنوتیپ‌های مطلوب گندم می‌باشد. به‌منظور شناسایی منابع مقاومت جدید، بررسی واکنش مقاومت 30 ژنوتیپ گندم همراه با شاهد حساس موروکو (Morocco) با شش نژاد Pgt (TKTTF، TTTTF، TTRTF، PKRTF، PKSTF و TKSTC) با دارا بودن الگو‌ی بیماری‌زایی متفاوت در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار به‌صورت آزمایش‌های جداگانه انجام شد. نتایج فنوتایپینگ و تجزیه واریانس، حاکی از تنوع فنوتیپی بالا برای اجزای مقاومت اندازه‌گیری شده (تیپ آلودگی و دوره کمون) در بین ژنوتیپ‌های گندم بود. براساس تجزیه خوشه‌ای، ژنوتیپ‌های گندم از نظر اجزای مقاومت مذکور در سه گروه اصلی مقاوم، حساس و نیمه مقاوم تا نیمه حساس قرار گرفتند. از بین ژنوتیپ‌های گندم مورد مطالعه 11 ژنوتیپ (35 درصد) نسبت به تمام نژاد‌ها واکنش حساسیت، چهار ژنوتیپ (13 درصد) شامل (مهرگان (G1)، 2EBWYT-20 (G2)، 2EBWYT-21 (G3) و WS-86-13 (G17)) نسبت به تمام نژاد‌ها واکنش مقاومت و 16 ژنوتیپ (52 درصد)‌ نیز واکنش نیمه مقاومت تا نیمه حساسیت (واکنش اختصاصی) نشان دادند. نتایج تجزیه بای‌پلات ژنوتیپ در محیط/نژاد (GGE biplot) حاکی از آن بود که ژنوتیپ G17 مقاوم‌ترین ژنوتیپ با روند پاسخ-دهی یکنواخت‌ نسبت به نژادهای مورد مطالعه بود. از ژنوتیپ‌های دارای درجات مختلف مقاومت به زنگ ساقه در این تحقیق می‌توان به‌عنوان منابع مقاومت برای تولید مواد پیش اصلاحی با پایه ژنتیکی گسترده مقاومت برای تهیه ارقام مقاوم جدید و پایدار گندم استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of wheat genotypes' resistance to stem rust through GGE biplot analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Omrani 1
  • R. Roohparvar 2
1 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Moghan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Stem rust, or black rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, poses a severe threat to global food security, potentially devastating wheat crops on farms. The damage of this disease in the epidemic condition is 100% of the wheat crops. Frequent epidemics of stem rust have been reported in different regions of the world in the past years. The most effective method to control this disease is identifying and incorporating effective resistance genes from resistant cultivars into desirable wheat genotypes, for establishing durable genetic resistance.
Materials and Methods
To identify new sources of resistance, an experiment was conducted to investigate the resistance reactions of 30 wheat genotypes and a susceptible check (Morocco) against six Pgt races with distinct pathogenicity patterns (TKTTF, TTTF, TTRTF, PKRTF, PKSTF, and TKSTC). The experiment employed a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each race of Pgt was used separately to evaluate the genotypes.
Results
Phenotyping and analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant phenotypic diversity among wheat genotypes for the measured resistance components (infection type and latent period). Cluster analysis classified the wheat genotypes into three main groups: resistant, susceptible, and moderately resistant to moderately susceptible. Among the wheat genotypes studied, 11 genotypes (35%) exhibited susceptibility to all races, while four genotypes (G1, G2, G3, and G17) (13%) demonstrated resistance to all races. The remaining 16 genotypes (52%) showed moderately resistant to moderately susceptible (specific reaction) responses. The biplot analysis (GGE biplot) identified genotype G17 as the most resistant genotype with a uniform response to all races.
Discussion
Genotypes with varying degrees of resistance to Pgt races identified in this study can serve as new and sustainable sources of resistance for breeding wheat cultivars with a broad genetic basis of resistance. The use of more races and differential isogenic lines can make it possible to provide more specific conditions to identify the effective resistance genes in each genotype more accurately. Evaluating the resistance of the examined genotypes at the adult plant stage can also lead to the identification of resistance genes at the adult plant stage which are more important than the seedling stage resistance genes. The existence of resistance genes at adult plant stage is not far from expected even if the genotype is sensitive in the seedling stage. It is hoped that the correct, and planned use of effective resistance genes at the seedling stage and adult plant stage together will lead to the creation of new stable resistant varieties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cluster analysis
  • infection type
  • latent period
  • sources of resistance
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