ارزیابی پرآزاری جدایه‌های Ascochyta rabiei روی ارقام مختلف نخود و تأثیر آن‌ها بر برخی صفات عملکردی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی-فارسی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه لرستان

2 دانشیار دانشگاه لرستان

3 استادیار دانشگاه لرستان

10.22055/ppr.2021.16710

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور بررسی پرآزاری جدایه ­های Ascochyta rabiei، عامل بیماری برق­ زدگی نخود، در استان‌های غربی کشور روی سه رقم افتراقی نخود انجام شد. همچنین اثر جدایه ­های عامل بیماری روی برخی صفات عملکردی نخود در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه بررسی شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده ‎ها نشان داد که اثر جدایه، رقم و اثر متقابل رقم و جدایه بر همه‌ی صفات اندازه­ گیری شده در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی دار می ‎باشد. بین ارقام آزمایشی بر اساس تجزیه و تحلیل شاخص ­های رشدی گیاه شامل (وزن صد دانه، تعداد غلاف در هر بوته، تعداد شاخه­ های اصلی و فرعی در هر بوته، ارتفاع گیاه، وزن تر و خشک اندام ­های هوایی و وزن تر و خشک ریشه) در سطح احتمال پنج درصد اختلاف معنی‌داری مشاهده شد. رقم ILC482 با میانگین 35 گرم وزن صد دانه، بیشترین عملکرد دانه را داشت. صفات تعداد غلاف در بوته و وزن صد دانه در مقایسه با شاهد بیشتر از سایر صفات عملکردی تحت تأثیر بیماری برق ­زدگی قرار گرفتند. ارزیابی شدت بیماری روی ارقام آزمایشی حاکی از اختلاف معنی‌دار (p <0.01) بین جدایه ­های آزمایشی در بروز بیماری بود. در بررسی خصوصیات ریخت‏ شناختی جدایه ­ها روی محیط­ کشت CSMDA، تفاوت­ های مشخصی در قطر و رنگ پرگنه، اندازه و شکل پیکنیدیوم‏‏‏ ها و پیکنیدیوسپور‏ها مشاهده شد. براساس نتایج بیماری ‏زایی، جدایه‎ ها در سه گروه پرآزار، نیمه پرآزار و کم آزار قرار گرفتند. جدایه­ های IL8، IL9 و IL10 بیشترین شدت بیماری ‏زایی را روی همه ارقام و جدایه IL10 بیشترین تأثیر را روی صفات ریخت‏ شناختی میزبان از خود نشان دادند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the pathogenicity of Ascochyta rabiei isolates on different chickpea lines and their effect on some yield-related traits

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Mirzapour 1
  • M. Darvishnia 2
  • E. Bazgir 3
  • H. Mirzaei Najafgholi 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Lorestan University
2 Associate Professor, Lorestan University
3 Assistant Professor, Lorestan University
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Chickpea is cultivated in the rotation with wheat and barley which plays an important role in the sustainable agriculture in the western provinces of Iran. The production of chickpea is strictly limited due to some devastating fungal diseases such as Aschochyta blight disease.
Materials and Methods
During 2017-2018, chickpea fields were monitored for the suspicious samples. Then, they were transferred to the laboratory. 100 samples were recovered from 20 local areas, and all isolates were categorized into 20 groups based on the geographical regions. From each group, one representative was selected for further studies. To investigate the pathogenicity and morphological diversity, three different chickpea varieties were selected for this study. This investigation was performed in the completely randomized block with three replications, and some resistant and production-related features were measured. To determine disease severity, a 0–9 rating scale was applied.
Results
In this investigation, 100 isolates from 20 local areas were selected. Subsequently, one representative from each group was selected. Based on the analytical results, the isolates were different in the pathogenicity and morphological at one percent probability level. Analytical approaches showed that interaction between isolates and varieties were different at all measured features at one percent probability. Among the varieties, for features such as the weight of 100 seeds, the number of sheet in each plant, number of shoots in each plant, plant height, wet and dry weight of root and upper parts were different at five percent similarity level. The variety of ILC482 was the most proficient with an average of 35 grams in 100 seed weight. 100 seed weight and the number of pods were affected by the disease more than other parameters. The evaluation of disease showed the variation among pathogenicity and morphological traits among isolates. In surveying the morphological parameters of isolates on CSMDA media, considerable differences were observed in colony color, pycnidium shape, and pycnidiospore. The isolates were divided into three groups: highly aggressive, medium aggressive and least aggressive based on the pathogenicity results. The isolates IL8, IL9, and IL10 had the highest pathogenicity on all cultivars. The isolate IL10 had the highest effect on morphological characteristics.
Discussion
Resistant variety is the best method of control Ascochyta blight due to the high price of fungicides and their harms to the environment. Unfortunately, resistance is not durable for a long time because of the fungal population's diversity. The interaction of differential chickpea varieties and fungal isolates showed different virulence (p < /em><0.01).It indicates that varieties are in different levels of resistance level. These variations are necessary for the identification and classification of virulence levels among the isolates. Differential varieties should contain different resistant genes. Analytical results showed that probable differences exist between varieties and isolates at one percent probability. Our results revealed that the functional features of chickpea are affected by Ascochyta blight. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cicer arietinum L
  • Ascochyta blight
  • Virulence
  • Western Provinces
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